Getting the interest of the reader; summing up your points in an interesting fashion Ob jective: To construct an interesting, informative introduction and conclusive ending to your research Introductions are important. They arouse a reader's interest, introduce the subject, and tackle the So What? factor. In short, they're your paper's "first impression." But you don't have to write them first. many students prefer launching right into the body of the essay before writing intros and conclusions. However, other students prefer writing the introduction first to help "set up" what's to follow. •Begin with a quotation. Just make sure you explain its relevance. Ex: We have nothing to Fear but fear itself. FDR encouraged US citizens with this at the beginning of WWII. •Begin with a question Ex: What would have happened if the United States had not dropped the atomic bomb in Japan? •Begin with an acknowledgment of an opinion opposite to the one you plan to take. Ex: Many people believe that the1950’s were the Happy Days. However, for many people… Ways to grab reader’s attention •Begin with an interesting fact Ex: Over 58,000 American soldiers lost their lives in Vietnam. •Begin with a definition or explanation of a term relevant to your paper. Ex: The Great Depression is a period in American history… • Ways to get the attention of the reader • Begin with irony or paradox. Ex: It is ironic that in order to save lives, the US dropped a bomb that actually took __________lives. • Begin with an analogy. Make sure it's original but not too farfetched. EX: Being a woman in the 1950’s was much like being a caged bird. • . Ways to grab reader’s attention Begin with a very short narrative or anecdote that has a direct bearing on your paper. Ex: A family of ten wakes up in a broken down tent, surrounded by hundreds of other families in Hooverville, a tent city named after Herbert Hoover, the Presidenbt often blamed for the Great Depression. Structure of the Introduction 1. Attention grabber 2. background information needed (When was the Great Depression; What is an interment camp; Which women in the 1950’s are you discussing—rich, middleclass, poor, What is the cold War, when did it take place 3. Thesis statement is the last sentence of the introduction. What not to do Do not use first person (I, me, my, mine) Do not say “In this essay I will… Do not say “ I’m going to tell you about…” Do not get into detailed information—save this for the body of the paper Do not use contractions Do not use slang Do not use lame adjectives—nice, big, little, a lot, Writing the conclusion Don't depend on your conclusion to clarify the body paragraphs. Your paragraphs should flow naturally into one another and connections should be made among them. Summary can be an important function of conclusions but keep this part brief; readers know what they've just read. Restate the thesis Restate, not repeat Thesis should be summarized, not repeated word for word Example Thesis Thesis: The American dream of home ownership, although once believed a right, has in today’s economy become a privilege due to the cost of homes, the rate of mortgages, and the rise in taxes. Restatement of thesis: Many Americans have concluded that in today’s market the dream of home ownership is beyond their reach. What about the rest of it? Demonstrate how the pieces of the essay fit together. Synthesize your main ideas. Do not merely repeat it Explain how they fit together. What conclusions have you drawn? Clincher Refer to your attention getter Anecdote: Tell the end of the story Attn Getter: John and Joan Miller have saved for three years to buy a home in which they can comfortably raise their new baby. They meet with realtors, cruise the neighborhoods, and finally find a home to meet their needs. However, after lengthy meetings with banking officials, they find the home of their dreams is beyond their means. Clincher Despite the difficulties that they have faced, Joan and John Miller have continued to save and hope to find a home before their baby enters the kindergarten.