Writing the intro and conclusion

Getting the interest of the reader; summing up your
points in an interesting fashion
Ob jective: To construct an interesting, informative
introduction and conclusive ending to your research
 Introductions are important.
 They arouse a reader's interest, introduce the subject,
and tackle the So What? factor.
 In short, they're your paper's "first impression."
 But you don't have to write them first.
 many students prefer launching right into the body of
the essay before writing intros and conclusions.
 However, other students prefer writing the
introduction first to help "set up" what's to follow.
•Begin with a quotation. Just make sure you explain its
relevance. Ex: We have nothing to Fear but fear itself.
FDR encouraged US citizens with this at the beginning
of WWII.
•Begin with a question Ex: What would have
happened if the United States had not dropped the
atomic bomb in Japan?
•Begin with an acknowledgment of an opinion
opposite to the one you plan to take. Ex: Many people
believe that the1950’s were the Happy Days.
However, for many people…
Ways to grab reader’s attention
•Begin with an interesting fact Ex: Over
58,000 American soldiers lost their lives in
•Begin with a definition or explanation of
a term relevant to your paper. Ex: The
Great Depression is a period in American
Ways to get the attention of the
• Begin with irony or paradox. Ex: It is
ironic that in order to save lives, the US
dropped a bomb that actually took
• Begin with an analogy. Make sure it's
original but not too farfetched. EX: Being
a woman in the 1950’s was much like
being a caged bird.
• .
Ways to grab reader’s attention
 Begin with a very short narrative or
anecdote that has a direct bearing on your
Ex: A family of ten wakes up in a broken down tent,
surrounded by hundreds of other families in
Hooverville, a tent city named after Herbert Hoover,
the Presidenbt often blamed for the Great Depression.
Structure of the Introduction
 1. Attention grabber
 2. background information needed (When was the
Great Depression; What is an interment camp; Which
women in the 1950’s are you discussing—rich, middleclass, poor, What is the cold War, when did it take
 3. Thesis statement is the last sentence of the
What not to do
 Do not use first person (I, me, my, mine)
 Do not say “In this essay I will…
 Do not say “ I’m going to tell you about…”
 Do not get into detailed information—save this for the
body of the paper
 Do not use contractions
 Do not use slang
 Do not use lame adjectives—nice, big, little, a lot,
Writing the conclusion
 Don't depend on your conclusion to clarify the body
 Your paragraphs should flow naturally into one
another and connections should be made among
 Summary can be an important function of conclusions
but keep this part brief; readers know what they've just
Restate the thesis
 Restate, not repeat
 Thesis should be summarized, not repeated word for
Example Thesis
Thesis: The American dream of home ownership,
although once believed a right, has in today’s economy
become a privilege due to the cost of homes, the rate
of mortgages, and the rise in taxes.
Restatement of thesis: Many Americans have concluded
that in today’s market the dream of home ownership is
beyond their reach.
What about the rest of it?
 Demonstrate how the pieces of the essay fit together.
 Synthesize your main ideas.
 Do not merely repeat it
 Explain how they fit together. What conclusions have
you drawn?
 Refer to your attention getter
 Anecdote: Tell the end of the story
 Attn Getter: John and Joan Miller have saved for three
years to buy a home in which they can comfortably
raise their new baby. They meet with realtors, cruise
the neighborhoods, and finally find a home to meet
their needs. However, after lengthy meetings with
banking officials, they find the home of their dreams
is beyond their means.
 Despite the difficulties that they have faced, Joan and
John Miller have continued to save and hope to find a
home before their baby enters the kindergarten.