Close Reading …Contain your excitement… What is Close Reading? Exciting! Challenging! Enthralling! Fun! … Well it’s mandatory, so deal with it. But You’ll Never Succeed if Your Attitude Stinks! All We Need is a Little Understanding Two Types 1) Context – explain what a given word means by looking at the text around it for clues. 2) Own Words – that’s the one where using quotes gets you killed. (Consider your mind blown…) Context Questions What are they looking for? The meaning of a word or phrase that is provided in the question. Proof that you can work out what that word or phrase means by using clues from the text. Context Success Criteria Two steps to victory! 1) Quote the word or phrase and state what it means. 2) Explain how you figured it out using the passage. COPY For Science! Err, English… Here comes an example! She was five years old, due to start school in three months time. It was a torrid, but beautiful day and she was playing between the film of shimmering heat. It was the kind of heat that could wear a mere mortal down his bare bones. Show how the context helped you work out the meaning of the word “torrid”. Figure it Out! What are the clues? She was five years old, due to start school in three months time. It was a torrid, but beautiful day and she was playing between the film of shimmering heat. It was the kind of heat that could wear a mere mortal down his bare bones. Okay! What do you think ‘torrid’ means? (Sheldon will attempt to send you the answer via his amazing psychic ability…) Step Numbero Uno Quote the word and state what it means. ‘Torrid’ means extreme and uncomfortable heat. Step Duex Explain how the passage helped you to work it out. The author refers to “shimmering heat”, which conveys how extreme the temperature was, and how it created a heatwave. 1 mark Full Answer ‘Torrid’ means extreme and uncomfortable heat. The author refers to “shimmering heat”, which conveys how extreme the temperature was, and how it created a heatwave. 2 marks Your Turn! “I seem finally to be learning what you were always trying to teach me, that my own country is exotic and even as perilous as Algeria. It is impossible to survive it without a good mind and a fully functioning gun.” Show how the context helped you work out the meaning of the word “perilous” (2). (Use your criteria!) Seek the Clues! “I seem finally to be learning what you were always trying to teach me, that my own country is exotic and even as perilous as Algeria. It is impossible to survive it without a good mind and a fully functioning gun.” “…impossible to survive it without a good mind and a fully functioning gun.” Write Your Answer! 1) ‘Perilous’ means… dangerous. 2) The author refers to the fact that you must possess a “fully functioning gun” in order to stay alive and protect yourself. Answer in Your Own Words In these questions, you are being asked to summarise/paraphrase what the writer has said. You must use your own words as far as possible. QUOTES ARE THE ENEMY! Worth the Effort Around half of the questions in the paper will ask you to answer in your own words. Quoting will lose the marks! Own Words Success Criteria..? COPY Put the author’s idea into your own words. DO NOT quote from the passage. Here Comes the Example! Glasgow is a city which has experienced constant change and adaptation, from its period as a great industrial city and as the Second City of Empire, to its latter day reinvention as the City of Culture and the Second City of Shopping. This is a city with pull, buzz, excitement, and a sense of style and its own importance. It has a potent international reach and influence. Glasgow’s story continually weaves in and out of a global urban tapestry: following the trade threads of Empire... 1. Explain why, according to the writer, Glasgow was an important world city in the past (2) Pick Out the Important Parts What do you have to understand? Glasgow is a city which has experienced constant change and adaptation, from its period as a great industrial city and as the Second City of Empire, to its latter day reinvention as the City of Culture and the Second City of Shopping. This is a city with pull, buzz, excitement, and a sense of style and its own importance. It has a potent international reach and influence. Glasgow’s story continually weaves in and out of a global urban tapestry: following the trade threads of Empire... The question is asking why Glasgow was an important city in the past. Thus, the most important pieces of information that you need to pick out and understand are: “...its period as a great industrial city and as the Second City of Empire...” “...following the trade threads of Empire...” The Answer For two marks you would need to have two of the following (or something similar): 1. it was very important for industry/ manufacture. 2. it was second only to London as a symbol of the British Empire. 3. It was important for international commerce. “We all travelled light, taking with us only what we considered to be the bare essentials of life.” Q. The family “travelled light”, in your own word explain what they took with them. Laughably Easy? Sheldon thinks so! … And he’s a scientist! All you need is a little practice! Can you identify the question? 1) By looking at the context of the paragraph, explain how the writer helps you understand what ‘disenfranchised’ means. 2) In your own words, explain why the author thinks that bears are not dangerous. 3) What does ‘ambivalent’ mean? Use the surrounding sentences to help you? 4) Why does Dean think that Billy is unhappy? Answer in your own words. 5) Explain the writer’s use of parenthesis in line 14. This one is on sentence structure. Next Please! Bring on the Imagery! Imagery – getting the picture! What is an image? An image is a picture that the writer tries to create through words. As readers we try to see what the image is. The picture is formed inside your head. (Or maybe on paper if you happen to be doodling at the time!) How is the image created? The writer uses words and figures of speech to create the image. Images are created because we associate ideas with particular words. The writer could use comparisons (similes, metaphors) to create an image. Success Criteria (QUOTE) State the Technique Say what is being compared to what Say what they have in common COPY Attack of the Obvious The most likely techniques that will come up in imagery questions are: Simile – comparing one thing to another by using ‘like’ or ‘as’. Metaphor – comparing one thing to another by saying that it is that thing. “He was dynamite on the dancefloor.” Similies – think ‘similar’ “All eyes on my, in the centre of the room just like a circus.” “Your love is like a rollercoaster.” “I’m feeling so fly like a G6.” “You’re as cuddly as a cactus, you’re as charming as an eel.” “You change your mind like a girl changes clothes.” Metaphors “You paint me a blue sky and go back and turn it to rain.“ “You shoot me down but I won’t fall, I am titanium.” “’Cause baby you’re a firework, come on show them what you’re worth.” “You are the thunder, I am the lightning.” “You’re my kryptonite!” REMEMBER: ‘Just as… so too…’ ‘Teaching is somewhat like banging one’s head against a wall…’ Technique: Simile Comparison: Teaching/ Hitting your head against a wall. ‘Just as hitting your head against a wall is painful and pointless, so too teaching in a frustrating and fruitless endeavour.’ One Good-Looking Answer ‘Teaching is somewhat like banging one’s head against a wall…’ ‘A simile is used to compare teaching to banging your head against a wall. The writer claims that just as hitting your head against a wall is painful and pointless, so too teaching is a frustrating and fruitless endeavour.’ Try This on for Size ‘The traders at my stall were like vultures round a carcase.’ ‘The traders at my stall were like vultures round a carcase.’ Technique: Simile Comparison: Vultures/ Traders at the stall ‘Just as vultures crowd round a carcass to feed, tearing at the flesh of the animal, so too the traders at the stall to grab the best wares for themselves.’ ‘A simile is used to compare the traders at the stall to vultures. Just as vultures crowd round a carcass to feed, tearing at the flesh of the animal, so too the traders huddle at the stall to grab the best wares for themselves.’ A little of the Perry “’Cause baby you’re a firework, come on show them what you’re worth.” Technique: Comparison: “Just as… So…” It’s not romantic… Ask Superman. “You’re my kryptonite!” Technique: Comparison: “Just as… So…” Word Choice Carefully selected for your bewilderment. REMEMBER! You must be aware of the difference between the denotation and the connotation of a word. Denotation= the dictionary definition of a word. Connotation= all the secondary meanings associated with a word. For example, Denotation of the word “home”= the place where someone lives and sleeps. Connotation of the word “home”= a place of warmth, safety and security. Word Choice Success Criteria 1. Identify the word or phrase. 2. Note the connotations. 3. Explain the effect of the word. Explain what the writer is trying to tell us. COPY Word Choice and Imagery Connotations are the key What a word suggests or is associated with Consider if it is positive or negative/ how extreme a word it is/ what mood or atmosphere it creates/ what sort of people it suggests 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Write down connotations of the words in bold. Use the words at the bottom to help you. “Listen,” “Listen,” “Listen,” “Listen,” “Listen,” “Listen,” “Listen,” “Listen,” he mumbled. she whispered. they chanted. she screamed. he hollered. she moaned. he insisted. she shrieked. secretive in pain Angry Shy repeating what’s been told annoying forbidden persuasive trying to be heard/get control frightened desperate Apologetic Unsure annoyed confident memorised conspiratorial pushy Write down connotations of the words in bold. Use the words at the bottom to help you. 1. He ambled along the road. 2. He strode along the road. 3. He shuffled along the road. 4. He swaggered along the road. 5. He strolled along the road. 6. He sauntered along the road. 7. She marched along the road. 8. She mooched along the road. 9. She meandered along the road. 10. She strutted along the road. angry purposeful tired moody dreamy happy superior rushed depressed self-satisfied relaxed formal ostentatious down overconfident aimless confident brisk relaxed comfortable cheerful curious moping self-pitying extrovert smug (Quiz Mark /10) Write down connotations of the words in bold. Use the words at the bottom to help you. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. She smirked. He beamed. She smiled. He sneered. She grinned. friendly cheerful mocking cruel delighted pleasant gleeful nasty mischievous Quiz happy cheeky joyful superior Mark /5 Write down connotations of the words in bold. The The The The The The warm afternoon sweltering afternoon glorious afternoon boiling afternoon scorching afternoon balmy afternoon Quiz Mark /12 Simon Cowell features as an acidtongued judge Question: How does the word choice illustrate the writer’s attitude to Cowell? (2A) Strategy: Quote the key word Give the meaning Give the connotations Answer: “acid-tongued” Means he is a critical judge Suggests the writer thinks he is cruel, mocking and cutting to the contestants. The McCanns now live in the shadow of police suspicion. Question: How does the word choice illustrate what the McCanns’ lives are like now? (2A) Strategy: Quote the key word Give the meaning Give the connotations Answer: “shadow” Means they are always being monitored by police Suggests their lives are miserable, fearful and gloomy because of the constant pressure. Radio 1 has announced a major revamp, bringing in Kelly Osbourne as a presenter and ditching chart show presenters JK and Joel. How does the word choice reveal Radio 1’s attitude to JK and Joel? (2A) Strategy: Quote the key word Give the meaning Give the connotations Answer: “ditching” Means they got rid of them Suggests Radio 1 think they’re useless, worthless and dreadful presenters. USING THE SUCCESS CRITERIA: What does the word choice suggest about each of the characters? (2A) He slumped back on the sofa. She perched on the sofa. He flopped onto the sofa. She lounged on the sofa. He sprawled on the sofa. She sank into the sofa. Play This! Read This! When reading articles, highlight or make a note of words that would make good ‘word choice’ questions. Find 2 examples and explain them. No doubt the gaming industry is, even now, going through a period of self-examination following a stabbing last week, somewhere near one of the queues for Grand Theft Auto IV. Although the attack could not, entirely, be blamed on the new game, the alleged knifer not having had the opportunity to be corrupted by it yet, the eruption of violence in a queue of people who like playing violent video games was depicted in many reports as the most When reading articles, highlight or make a note of words that would make good ‘word choice’ questions. E.g. No doubt the gaming industry is, even now, going through a period of selfexamination following a stabbing last week, somewhere near one of the queues for Grand Theft Auto IV. Although the attack could not, entirely, be blamed on the new game, the alleged knifer not having had the opportunity to be corrupted by it yet, the eruption of violence in a queue of people who like playing violent video games was depicted in many reports as the most natural thing in the world. Example 1: “Oil prices have rocketed in recent years.” What key word(s) did the writer use? rocketed What do you associate with this word (s)? and what does the choice of word suggest? rocket –firework –exploding –going up really fast, etc. Suggests speed – the writer wants to emphasise the sudden/dramatic/ explosive rise in prices What is the purpose /effect of the word(s)? describes how dramatically prices have risen – suggests prices have exploded – soared – increased. Now write a full answer to the question How effective is the use of the word “rocketed” in the sentence above? Example 2: “The precious secret was unearthed - a glittering nugget - that was to prove invaluable.” What key word(s) did the writer use? glittering nugget What do you associate with this word (s)? What does the choice of word suggest? nugget suggests gold – something really valuable Suggests something precious like gold What is the purpose /effect of the image? describes how valuable the secret was –how important –it was great find - like finding gold, etc. Now write a full answer to the question Comment on the effectiveness of the imagery in the sentence above? Analyse the word-choice in these sentences in the same way as the examples in the previous two slides 1. The headmaster charged into the classroom like a raging bull. 2. The pack of reporters encircled the actress snapping questions at her, desperate for some juicy morsel of gossip. 3. He stood in an icy sweat of hatred – with thoughts of cold-blooded murder on his mind. 4. The helicopter ascended and soared into the sky with the blades slicing through the air. After a few minutes the whirring of the rotors faded to the sound of tiny butterfly wings. 1. The headmaster charged into the classroom like a raging bull. What is the key word? What are your associations with the word? What is the effect/purpose of the image? Sentence Structure Commas and Dashes and Colons. Oh my! Learning Intentions To enable you to answer sentence structure question effectively. Sentence Structure: What are they asking? This is pretty much the most mechanical part of English. You are being asked to prove that you know the purpose of punctuation and the make-up of the sentence. Main Focuses Sentence Length Punctuation and Lists Repetition Word order Sentence Length Revision Remember Short Sentence Used for IMPACT or to sum up a point. Long Sentence Used for listing or to show a train of thought. Try These… What is the purpose of the sentence length? “Adele had always had trouble with Derek; he pushed her, threw things at her and generally made her life miserable. She hated him.” “Marcus thought he would go to the cinema, but found that he lacked the funding and so went to the park. That’s when James showed up.” It’s a Formula In maths symbols have specific meanings: (x=37) (x is equal to thirty-seven) It’s the same with punctuation in sentence structure: She hated Christmas: she hated the lights, the presents, the giggling children and even the jolly feeling in the air. She hated Christmas additional info she hated the lights, the presents, the giggling children and even the jolly feeling in the air. Punctuation Not Just Squiggles… Success Criteria Identify the Technique State what it is used for what it is used for Explain why it has been used in this context COPY Skeleton Answer “(Step 1) A _______ is used (Step 2) to _______. 1 mark (Step 3) This _______________. 1 mark Examples 1) A colon is used 2) to introduce a list. 3) This tells us that she was very busy all day because the author lists her activities. Examples A rhetorical question is used To involve the reader. It encourages the reader to think about their own opinion of Mitt Romney. We should be familiar with… Sentence Structure Question: Punctuation To be successful in this type of question you have to be able to identify and explain: Colon : used to introduce a list or an explanation Semi-colon ; separate items in a complex list or introduces a balancing point Dash – add information/explanation ( ) Add additional information (an Parenthesis , , aside which is not necessary for - - the sentence to make sense) Exclamation mark ! Effects the tone of a sentence Inverted commas “ ” show a title or may question the truthfulness of opinion Why Question it? (?) Another Favourite The question mark is used to: Involve the reader Show shock, disbelief or uncertainty Alert the reader to the topic. COPY Rhetorical Question – does not require an answer as the author is certain that they already know the response. Which is which?! “Another baby? She had only just given birth a few months before!” “Have you ever considered the effects that technology has on us today?” “Isn’t the upper class attitude to the poor disgusting?” GO TEAM! Reassemble your quiz team – complete with name. The Challenge Look at the following passage. Find 4 examples of sentence structure. Use the success criteria to form 2 perfect explanations of the technique. The virtual removal from the painful process of payment has a lot to answer for. Given the ease of a couple of clicks, it hardly feels like spending. No standing in a queue and giving your conscience the chance to get the better of you here. What’s more, by the time the packages actually arrive – all nice and pretty and wrapped up like presents – they seem almost free. Shoppers like me suffer “payment lobotomy”, erasing the minor detail of money from our memories. One friend puts on each outfit she has ordered, then practises walking into her bedroom as if she’s greeting people in a bar before deciding what to keep. This process would surely be difficult in a crowded changing room, not without security being called, at least. In her own home, though, security aren’t there, it’s just her and her pretty boxes, having totally forgotten that brief moment in which she typed her credit-card details. Nothing – not the size-eight teenager with smelly feet in the next changing room, the irritating assistant who tries to coerce you into high-waisted tartan trousers, nor the weird mirror that makes you look like Jabba the Hutt– can ruin that moment. Until the bank manager calls. Answers Techniques: 1. list: 2. short sentence: Examples: 3. parenthesis: 4. inverted commas: “not the size...the Hutt“ “Until the bank manager calls.” “– all nice and pretty and wrapped up like presents – “ suffer from ‘payment lobotomy’” Tone Remember: tone shows attitude. Is the attitude positive or negative? What emotion is the writer feeling at the time? Tone Success Criteria (Consider the author’s attitude throughout the text. Decide first whether it is positive of negative.) State the tone (humorous, persuasive, informal etc.) Give evidence for your answer. Glossary of Tones Sarcastic Affectionate Patronising Annoyed Curious Ironic Humorous Melancholy Sympathetic Cynical Sardonic Angry Serious Excited Enthusiastic Factual Argumentative Flippant Tongue in cheek Sad Monotonous Fearful Contemptuous Exasperated Informal Conversational Eerie Personal Mocking Euphoria Hectoring Bullying Effusive Abusive Cheerful Charming Inviting Uninviting Rude Polite Persuasive Commanding COPY Tricky Customers ! Argumentative – it’s probably going to involve anger and exclamation marks. Does the writer feel passionate about the subject? Excited – again, exclamation marks may be present, however, the author will have a positive attitude. Humour – Look for absurd images or ideas, sarcasm or good old fashion ‘taking the rip’. COPY Tricky Customers Ironic – the writer is saying the opposite of what they mean. Often this is used to make the alternative view seem ridiculous. (‘Yes, just hand guns out to whoever wants them; children, the elderly, the short sighted. They all have the right. This is America and the right to bear arms is in the constitution.”) Persuasive – Often uses rhetorical questions. Is the writer trying to get you to think the way they do or to agree with them? Do they want you to take action? Formal – do they sound like they’re at a board meeting? Formal language will be very proper. It won’t address the reader in a conversational manner and no slang will be used. The reverse is informal. Problem Page This letter appeared in the Problem Page section of the Daily Record a short time ago. Read the letter and then the response from Joan Burnie. Problem Page My drink was spiked one night and someone, probably the police, micro chipped me from head to toe. The result is that they now control me – waking me up at night and not letting me sleep. I don’t feel right during the day because I am so tired and can’t concentrate properly on my job. I have been to the doctor to ask for a full body scan so I can get these chips taken out of my body. But he refused and says he will send me to talk to someone and give me pills to help me sleep. I want to be normal but I can’t be with these microchips in me. Problem Page Funny? Sad? Anyway, let’s look at Joan Burnie’s answer and identify what tone she is using in response to this poor man! Problem Page I think you really must follow your doctor’s advice, especially about speaking to someone about these microchips. Unfortunately, your GP can’t help you himself as this is a very specialised area of medicine, which means you have to see someone who specifically deals with difficult problems such as yours. Please, talk to him or her. Problem Page What tone does she use and what words or phrases help you to identify this particular tone? Problem Page Now it’s over to you… You are going to be assigned a specific tone. Your task is to write a short response to the original letter in that particular tone.