Total Quality Management

Total Quality Management
 "Understanding
Profound Knowledge"
Dr. T. Valesky
 "Hard work and best efforts will by themselves
not produce quality.... the missing ingredient,
profound knowledge."
 "We are being ruined by best efforts directed the
wrong way. We need best efforts directed by a
theory of management." -W. Edwards Deming
Knowledge of Psychology
 "One
is born with a natural inclination to
learn and to be innovative. One inherits a
right to enjoy his work. (Our knowledge of]
psychology helps us to nurture and preserve
these positive attributes of people."
 "Management that denies to their
employees dignity and self-esteem will
smother intrinsic motivation."
 -W. Edwards Deming
Knowledge of Psychology (continued)
Individuals in an organization must have an understanding
of human motivation that drives their basic philosophy of
how people behave in an organization. This is one's basic
philosophy of human nature.
Individuals, particularly the leaders in an organization
must believe that people are intrinsically motivated to
perform well, and that they will perform to the best of their
ability given the working conditions that are present.
A "Knowledge of Psychology" is realized in an
organization when individuals truly implement Theory Y
of Douglas McGregor.
Appreciation for a System
"Without an aim, there is no system. The
components of a system are necessary but not
sufficient of themselves to accomplish the aim.
They must by managed."
 "Management's job is to optimize the system
through relationships that ensure that all the
components win."
-W. Edwards Deming
Appreciation for a System (continued)
The system should seek to optimize its productivity and
Suboptimization must be avoided. Suboptimization occurs
when one component of a system changes (hopefully for
the better), but negatively impacts another component of
the system.
Activity: Diagram as many components (subsystems) of
a school as you can brainstorm. For each component listed,
show the other components of the system that are affected
by it.
Theory of Knowledge
"Knowledge is prediction."
 "Experience is no help in management unless
studied with the aid of theory."
"To copy an example of success, without
understanding it with the aid of theory, may lead
to disaster.
-W. Edwards Deming
Theory of Knowledge (continued)
We develop knowledge based on information the we
interpret, and in turn we develop theories from that
knowledge. Then we predict based on our theories. A
summary of the "Theory of Knowledge" is as follows:
Interpreted Information = Knowledge = Theories =
Prediction = Quality Action
Therefore, in order to accurately predict, we must start
with sufficient and accurate information (data). The
implementation of TQM uses a variety of data collection
techniques and tools to help interpret the data.
Activity on Theory of
 In
groups, indicate the sequence of numbers
that follow and develop your theory. Decide
one of one of three levels of readiness you
are prepared for: full implementation,
partial implementation now, need more
 1, 2 . . .
Theory of Variation
"Eighty to ninety percent of variations in expected
outcomes are caused by problems in the system or
process, not the worker."
 "Some
understanding of special causes and
common causes of variation, is essential for
management of a system-including leadership of
-W. Edwards Deming
Theory of Variation (continued)
 Example:
School bus pick up times will vary
because of traffic and traffic signal stops, but pick
up times will be predicable within certain limits.
These causes of variation are common causes.
 If
the bus has an accident, runs out of fuel, or a
substitute driver is driving, the bus may be later
than usual, outside of the predictable limits. These
would be special causes of the variation.
provides tools that enable one to identify
special causes. (Measurement/Normal Curve)
To Determine Special Causes
 Plot
at least 20 data points.
 Special causes of variation:
– data points outside the control limits (usually
+/- 3 Standard Deviations).
– A run of 8 or more data points in a row either
above or below the center line.
– 6 or more increasing or decreasing in a trend.
– 3 consecutive data points near outer limits.
 All other data are treated as common cause of
Source: Langford,
B.(1994). Langford
International Inc.
In Summary
"One need not be eminent in any part of profound
knowledge in order to understand it as a system, and to
apply it. The 14 points for management in industry,
education, and government follow naturally as application
of the system of profound knowledge, for transformation
from the prevailing style of Western management to one of
"The various segments of the system of profound
knowledge can not be separated. They interact with each
-W. Edwards Deming
In Summary (continued)
1. "Profound Knowledge", that is, having a belief
in people, an understanding of the "system", a
theory of variation, and a theory of knowledge,
helps individuals in a system understand that
people must work together to improve the system,
by helping one another understand the special
causes of variation in the system that cause
In Summary (continued)
2. Continuous improvement to the system occurs
by increasing information (data) through studying
and learning (the educative process), and by
continued communication within components and
across components through cross-functional
groups in the system.
Deming, D. W. (1989, July). Foundation for
management of quality in the western world.
Paper presented at the meeting of the Institute of
Management Sciences, Osaka, Japan.
Rhodes, L. A., (1990, November). Why quality is
within our grasp... If we reach. The School
Administrator, pp.31-34.
The Four Pillars of Schools of
Permission to duplicate this information
is from John Jay Bonstingl (1993). The
Center for Schools of Quality.
Pillar 1: A Customer-Supplier
 The
organization and its people must focus,
first and foremost, on their customers and
– Build customer and supplier relationships both
within and external to the system.
– Teach the system's people how to gather data to
analyze needs and wants of customers and
Pillar 2: Constant Dedication to
Continuous Improvement
Everyone in the organization must be dedicated to
continuous improvement--personally and
collectively--at work, at home, and in the
– The students’ progress is the main product of
the work.
– Quality (TQM) is not the flavor of the month.
– Changes take time and dedication of everyone.
Changes bring pleasure and pain.
Pillar 3: A Process-Systems
 The
organization must be viewed as a
system, and the work people do within the
system must be seen as ongoing processes.
– Education must be viewed as a journey, not a
– In any system, collaboration brings best results.
Pillar 4: Consistent Quality
 The
success of the Quality Transformation
is the responsibility of top management, and
can only be achieved over time though
constant dedication to the principles and
practices of TQM.
– Training must be consistent and on-going.
– Leaders must construct a fear-less work
environment in which temporary failures lead
to continuous improvement.