Total Quality Management "Understanding Profound Knowledge" Dr. T. Valesky "Hard work and best efforts will by themselves not produce quality.... the missing ingredient, profound knowledge." "We are being ruined by best efforts directed the wrong way. We need best efforts directed by a theory of management." -W. Edwards Deming Knowledge of Psychology "One is born with a natural inclination to learn and to be innovative. One inherits a right to enjoy his work. (Our knowledge of] psychology helps us to nurture and preserve these positive attributes of people." "Management that denies to their employees dignity and self-esteem will smother intrinsic motivation." -W. Edwards Deming Knowledge of Psychology (continued) Individuals in an organization must have an understanding of human motivation that drives their basic philosophy of how people behave in an organization. This is one's basic philosophy of human nature. Individuals, particularly the leaders in an organization must believe that people are intrinsically motivated to perform well, and that they will perform to the best of their ability given the working conditions that are present. A "Knowledge of Psychology" is realized in an organization when individuals truly implement Theory Y of Douglas McGregor. Appreciation for a System "Without an aim, there is no system. The components of a system are necessary but not sufficient of themselves to accomplish the aim. They must by managed." "Management's job is to optimize the system through relationships that ensure that all the components win." -W. Edwards Deming Appreciation for a System (continued) The system should seek to optimize its productivity and effectiveness. Suboptimization must be avoided. Suboptimization occurs when one component of a system changes (hopefully for the better), but negatively impacts another component of the system. Activity: Diagram as many components (subsystems) of a school as you can brainstorm. For each component listed, show the other components of the system that are affected by it. Theory of Knowledge "Knowledge is prediction." "Experience is no help in management unless studied with the aid of theory." "To copy an example of success, without understanding it with the aid of theory, may lead to disaster. -W. Edwards Deming Theory of Knowledge (continued) We develop knowledge based on information the we interpret, and in turn we develop theories from that knowledge. Then we predict based on our theories. A summary of the "Theory of Knowledge" is as follows: Interpreted Information = Knowledge = Theories = Prediction = Quality Action Therefore, in order to accurately predict, we must start with sufficient and accurate information (data). The implementation of TQM uses a variety of data collection techniques and tools to help interpret the data. Activity on Theory of Knowledge In groups, indicate the sequence of numbers that follow and develop your theory. Decide one of one of three levels of readiness you are prepared for: full implementation, partial implementation now, need more research. 1, 2 . . . Theory of Variation "Eighty to ninety percent of variations in expected outcomes are caused by problems in the system or process, not the worker." "Some understanding of special causes and common causes of variation, is essential for management of a system-including leadership of people." -W. Edwards Deming Theory of Variation (continued) Example: School bus pick up times will vary because of traffic and traffic signal stops, but pick up times will be predicable within certain limits. These causes of variation are common causes. If the bus has an accident, runs out of fuel, or a substitute driver is driving, the bus may be later than usual, outside of the predictable limits. These would be special causes of the variation. TQM provides tools that enable one to identify special causes. (Measurement/Normal Curve) To Determine Special Causes Plot at least 20 data points. Special causes of variation: – data points outside the control limits (usually +/- 3 Standard Deviations). – A run of 8 or more data points in a row either above or below the center line. – 6 or more increasing or decreasing in a trend. – 3 consecutive data points near outer limits. All other data are treated as common cause of variation. Source: Langford, B.(1994). Langford International Inc. In Summary "One need not be eminent in any part of profound knowledge in order to understand it as a system, and to apply it. The 14 points for management in industry, education, and government follow naturally as application of the system of profound knowledge, for transformation from the prevailing style of Western management to one of optimization." "The various segments of the system of profound knowledge can not be separated. They interact with each others. -W. Edwards Deming In Summary (continued) 1. "Profound Knowledge", that is, having a belief in people, an understanding of the "system", a theory of variation, and a theory of knowledge, helps individuals in a system understand that people must work together to improve the system, by helping one another understand the special causes of variation in the system that cause suboptimization. In Summary (continued) 2. Continuous improvement to the system occurs by increasing information (data) through studying and learning (the educative process), and by continued communication within components and across components through cross-functional groups in the system. References Deming, D. W. (1989, July). Foundation for management of quality in the western world. Paper presented at the meeting of the Institute of Management Sciences, Osaka, Japan. Rhodes, L. A., (1990, November). Why quality is within our grasp... If we reach. The School Administrator, pp.31-34. The Four Pillars of Schools of Quality Permission to duplicate this information is from John Jay Bonstingl (1993). The Center for Schools of Quality. Pillar 1: A Customer-Supplier Focus The organization and its people must focus, first and foremost, on their customers and suppliers. – Build customer and supplier relationships both within and external to the system. – Teach the system's people how to gather data to analyze needs and wants of customers and suppliers. Pillar 2: Constant Dedication to Continuous Improvement Everyone in the organization must be dedicated to continuous improvement--personally and collectively--at work, at home, and in the community. – The students’ progress is the main product of the work. – Quality (TQM) is not the flavor of the month. – Changes take time and dedication of everyone. Changes bring pleasure and pain. Pillar 3: A Process-Systems Approach The organization must be viewed as a system, and the work people do within the system must be seen as ongoing processes. – Education must be viewed as a journey, not a destination. – In any system, collaboration brings best results. Pillar 4: Consistent Quality Leadership The success of the Quality Transformation is the responsibility of top management, and can only be achieved over time though constant dedication to the principles and practices of TQM. – Training must be consistent and on-going. – Leaders must construct a fear-less work environment in which temporary failures lead to continuous improvement.