Unit 4 Your Argument’s Body Paragraphs: ELABORATION What makes up the BODY of an argumentative essay? Reasons Cited Text Evidence ELABORATION Counterargument Next week! What we already know … Each body paragraph must include A clearly stated reason At least TWO pieces of evidence from the text ELABORATION What information can we use for good, supportive evidence? Facts – evidence that is proven to be true Research Studies – any research done that your If underlined, yousupports should be writing in your notes! reasoning Anecdotes – a brief story that captures the issue or situation Statistics – a numerical value that emphasizes an amount of something Quotations – exact words from a reliable individual What is Elaboration? Elaboration: to go further than the basic answer; explain how evidence supports your claim and reason. Elaboration involves you using your own ideas and words to further support your argument. Elaboration can be simple Sometimes elaboration can be what we have referred to as the “Tie Back” To elaborate – simply tie back the evidence you are using and explain how it supports your reason and your claim. Tie Back Sentence Starters This statistic shows…. It is clear to see that…. Obviously…. This quotation demonstrates…. This illustrates the importance of… These words reveal… Schools should continue to teach coed classes because it does not prepare students for the future. According to the article “Single-sex Education: the Pros and Cons,” single-gender classrooms limit students exposure to the opposite sex and does not prepare them for working cooperatively in the future (Stanberry 4). These words show why it is important for boys and girls to work with one another and therefore there should be coed classes. Is this appropriate elaboration? NO! It does not explain how the evidence supports the reason And claim! More Successful…. Schools should continue to teach coed classes because it does not prepare students for the future. According to the article “Single-sex Education: the Pros and Cons,” single-gender classrooms limit students exposure to the opposite sex and does not prepare them for working cooperatively in the future (Stanberry 4). These words explain why it is important for students to learn with the opposite sex early in life. School is meant to prepare students for the real world. Therefore, if students are going to go into the real world, which involves working with and living amongst the opposite sex, then they should have that exposure in their earlier years in a coed school. Example Elaboration ANECDOTE REASON First, music is an important elective that should not be taken out of schools because it can help students beyond the classroom. For example, Michael Gellman, an eighth grader, has played piano since he was four. When he wrote a personal essay last year, he realized how important his playing had been. His memoir revealed how it had helped him cope with his parents’ divorce and the death of a piano teacher (“Music is Always Power”). Music can be therapy for students like Michael and help during difficult times. Taking this class away from students also takes away an outlet that many students need during tough times in life. ELABORATION Types of Evidence! F.R.A.S.Q.T.O.C. FACTS RESEARCH STUDIES ANECDOTE STATISTICS Quotation Further Elaboration Thought provoking question If…then statements Compare and contrast FURTHER ELABORATION Thought Provoking Question – asking a question in your paper and directing towards the audience with no answer expected It’s purpose is to get the reader to wonder and ask themselves that question If….then statement – Predicting what will happen based on your argument Comparison – to compare your reason to another subject, instance, or fact so that the reader may get a better understanding of your argument. Bulldogs are suffering. Because of the way they have been Comparison bred, those cute dogs have difficulty breathing, skin problems and joint pains from their stumpy legs. In addition, bulldogs are bred to Questions have an undershot jawThought which leads Provoking to teeth problems. But bulldogs have not always had these problems. It is because of the breeding that has developed as a result of the breeding. Therefore, is it preventable? Can these issues be reversed and actually be bred out of the dogs? These types of struggles seem to only occur with household pets. What if it was a horse? If there was a horse who struggled with breathing, eating, or exercising, there would be a major concern in the equine world. So why is it not being taken care of with the bulldog? If the breeding standards for bulldogs do not change, it could lead to future deformities in other breeds of dogs. According to the article “Is the Bulldog Doomed?” in history dogs were working animals, bred to herd sheep or hunt. Now, dogs are bred just for their appealing looks rather than what they do. If this has occurred with the bulldog, then it will occur Reread Selena’s body paragraph. Underline all oftothe with other breeds if something is not done. According Kirsten components of her body paragraph (reason, of Theisen of the Humane Society of the Unites states,type “People transitions wanted to ownevidence, the cutestelaboration, dog on the block; the breeders began selecting for traits without regard for the health consequences for the animals.” Breeders breed dog so that they can appeal to the buyer and the trend. However, breeders are not always responsible. If the standards for the bulldog change so that they promote a healthier dog, then breeders will want to meet those healthy standards not just for the bulldog but for other dogs as well.