Unit 1 Study Guide Vocabulary *** Don’t forget to review your map skills!!! *** People & Places Australeopithecus Homo Habilis Homo Erectus Neanderthal & Homo Sapiens Hunter Gatherers Nomads Farmers “Priest kings” of Mesopotamia Mesopotamia “Fertile Crescent” Tigris River Euphrates River Challenges to settlers of Mesopotamia - Annual flooding - No natural barriers - Few natural resources Solutions for Mesop. settlers City states of Mesopotamia Ziggurat Sumerian social hierarchy Akkadians Sargon of Akkad Amorites (Babylonians) King Hammurabi’s accomplishments Hittites Phoenician city-states Phoenician colonies (name / location) Assyrians / Assyrian Empire Concepts “Big History” Key to Civilization Population Growth Reasons why humans have succeeded Implications of Farming Key to Civilization Characteristics of civilization (below) - Advanced cities - Specialized workers - Complex institutions - Record keeping - Advanced technology Basis of religious power of Mesopotamia city-states Indo-European migrations Indo-European language family Things Neolithic Revolution Dry farming Slash and burn farming Irrigation Dynasty Cultural Diffusion Sumerian religion Inventions of Sumerians - Wheel - Sail - Plow - Metallurgy - Sun dried bricks Pictogram (form of writing) Cuneiform Sumerian numbering system Empire Code of Hammurabi Epic of Gilgamesh Battle of Kadesh, 1274 BC Phoenician alphabet Key Questions: - What are the characteristics of civilization? Why does Mr. Duffy argue that civilization is “all about the food surplus”? - When and why did people settle in Mesopotamia? Discuss the attractions of the area, any challenges facing the settlers, and their response(s) to those challenges. - Discuss Sumerian religion, including its relationship to Sumerian political structures, its development over time, its influence in society, and the Sumerian conception of land ownership.