2nd lecture part 1 - function of skeleton and types of bones

BTEC National Diploma in Sport
and Exercise Science
The human skeleton
Session 2 Part 1
Joke of the day!
 What
do you call a stupid skeleton?
Quick Quiz
Skeletal function
The skeleton has six basic functions:
1. Support - most body tissues and some organs are
fairly soft. Without the underlying support of the
skeleton we would be shapeless lumps.
2. Movement/Leverage - the bones with their
moveable joints and the muscles that attach to
them form powerful levers. This not only allows
us to move the body as a whole in locomotion and
physical activity, but also with precision and
control which is important in many activities
(archery, snooker).
Skeletal function
3. Protection - the skeleton protects vital organs
necessary for our survival. For example the
thoracic cage made up of the ribs, breastbone and
spinal column protects the heart and lungs.
4. Blood cell production - the bone marrow
manufactures red blood cells (oxygen transport)
and white cells (defence against infection).
Skeletal function
5. Calcium storage - calcium salts are essential for
the healthy functioning of the body. The bones
can store calcium, this ability to store is reduced in
later life which may be associated with brittle
bones in the elderly.
In sports persons, low calcium levels may
contribute to a higher incidence of stress fractures.
6. Muscle attachment – many bones have
‘bumps’ or rough areas on their surfaces that
allow muscles to attach to them via tendons. For
example the lateral malleoli at the end of the
Skeletal system:
There are 4 main categories of bone, these being
long, short, flat and irregular.
Long bones - examples of these are the bones of
the arms and legs. Effective at producing
movement due to their length.
Short bones - these are small bones which are very
strong and well adapted to resist compression
forces. E.g. foot and wrist bones.
Bone categories
Flat bones - these bones frequently have a
protective function, such as the skull and
the ribs.
 Irregular bones - these usually have mixed
functions. Examples are the bones of the
spinal column, the shoulder blades and the
facial bones.