Analysis Phase

The Analysis Phase:
Gathering Information
The Analysis Phase
The “Analysis Phase” answers the questions of
who will use the system, what the system will
do, and where and when it will be used. It
consists of three stages:
– Understanding the “As-Is System”
– Identifying the improvements needed to
that system
– Producing a description of the “To-Be
• Understand how to use interviews to gather
requirements information
• Understand how to use joint application design
sessions to gather requirements information
• Be familiar with questionnaires
• Be familiar with document analysis
• Be familiar with observation
• Understand when to use each technique
Information Gathering Strategies
There are many strategies for information
gathering, we will focus on five strategies:
– Interviews
– Joint Application Design (JAD) sessions
– Document Analysis
– Observation
– Questionnaires
Information Gathering Strategies
Information gathering strategies by degree of
– Observation
– Document Analysis
– Questionnaires
– Interviews
– Joint Application Design (JAD) sessions
The interview is the most commonly used
information-gathering technique. There are five
basic steps to the interview process:
– Selecting Interviewees
– Designing Interview Questions
– Preparing for the Interview
– Conducting the Interview
– Follow-up
Joint Application Design (JAD)
JAD is an information-gathering technique for
large groups
– the project team,
– users and management
JAD is a structured process that requires a skilled
– The facilitator is the person who sets the
meeting agenda and guides the discussion.
– The facilitator remains neutral during the
Questionnaires (surveys) are often used when
there is a large number of people (the population)
who may have the information needed for the
Instead of interviewing, or even surveying,
everyone (this would be a census), a representative
sample of the population is taken.
Can cover a wider range of the population than
interviews, but lack the richness of detail that
interviews can provide.
Document Analysis
Document analysis can be very useful in
understanding the as-is system.
Provide strong evidence of how the as-is system
was intended to operate.
However, it is important to distinguish between
the formal and informal systems. Documents can
help with both.
Observation can be used see how the as-is system
actually operates.
Observation in conjunction with the other
techniques is very helpful in distinguishing
between the formal and informal systems.
– However, an observer must be careful of the
“Hawthorne Effect.”
Information Gathering Strategies
Getting the actual information is not as trivial
The "more intrusive" methods (interviews and joint
application development) have the advantage of
being able to adjust questions based on previous
responses but take considerably more time.
One approach is to use less intrusive methods first
(document analysis and observation) then follow
up with the other three methods (interviews,
JAD, or questionnaires) based on these findings.
Selecting the Appropriate Technique
There is no one appropriate technique; each has
its strengths and weaknesses. Generally a
combination of techniques is best. Consideration
should be given to:
– Type of Information
– Depth of Information
– Breadth of Information
– Integration of Information
– User Involvement
– Cost
A hypothetical problem
• An unscrupulous group of A337 students
want to maximize their course grade at the
expense of honesty.
• They believe that a high final score is the
• The students have even gone as far as to
offer payments to “analysts” (i.e., past and
current A337 students) based on their test
A hypothetical problem
• The “analysts” get paid more for presenting
their findings earlier
• The analysts get a bonus after the fact based
on how well the students actually did on the
• What would you suggest as a analysis plan
for these scoundrels? Consider the
methods, “respondents”, and the order
you would use.