Chapter 5 Lesson 3 Day 2

Speak softly and carry a big stick.
How might you characterize Roosevelt’s
foreign policy?
Students might suggest that it seems forceful
or that it uses imperialist ideals.
What does “speak softly” mean in the
context of the quote?
Avoid aggressive foreign policy statements.
Taft’s Dollar Diplomacy
Economic Aid Under William Howard Taft, U.S. power
was still evident in Latin America, but it tended to take the
form of helping Latin America economically rather than
protecting the region militarily. Taft’s policy came to be
called “dollar diplomacy.”
Military Support U.S. banks steadily took over the
business of loaning Latin American countries money. This
helped ensure that Europe would have no cause to
intervene in the region. In Nicaragua, loans made to help
stabilize the government were not enough. Unable to quell
social unrest, the government called on the United States,
which sent in the marines to keep the peace.
How was dollar diplomacy intended to
help the United States as well as Latin
Both would gain financially from U.S. trade
and investment, and Latin American
countries would also become more stable
and orderly.
How could the economic power of the
United States be seen as a “big stick”?
The United States was by far the largest
economic power in the Western
Hemisphere. American industrialists used
that power to their advantage throughout
Latin America.
The goal of the Roosevelt Corollary was to
prevent European powers from using the debt
problems of Latin America to justify intervening
in the region. The United States first applied the
Roosevelt Corollary in the Dominican Republic,
which had fallen behind on its debt payments to
European nations. In 1905 the United States
assumed the responsibility of collecting customs
tariffs in the Dominican Republic, using the U.S.
Marine Corps as its agent.
Wilson’s Diplomacy
Moral Diplomacy Woodrow Wilson opposed imperialism and also believed in
encouraging democracy. Wilson hoped to base his foreign policy on moral principles,
fashioning a kind of “moral diplomacy.”
Mexican Revolution In 1913 General Victoriano Huerta seized power in Mexico from,
and murdered, a reformer who seemed to favor democratic rule. Wilson refused to
recognize the new government.
Military Forays into Mexico In April 1914, an incident in Mexico involving U.S.
sailors offered Wilson a chance to overthrow Huerta. After Congress voted to allow him
to use force, Wilson found out about an arms shipment to Veracruz, Mexico. He sent
marines to shell the city and take it by force. Two years later, violent incursions into the
United States by the Mexican revolutionary Pancho Villa drew another military
response. Wilson sent 6,000 soldiers into Mexico to capture Villa, but they failed to find
“Moral Imperialism” To critics, Wilson’s Mexican policy seemed little different from
Roosevelt’s “big stick” diplomacy—more like “moral imperialism” than “moral
diplomacy.” Wilson sent marines into Haiti in 1915 to put down a rebellion. The next
year, he sent troops into the Dominican Republic to preserve order and ended up taking
charge of the whole government.
How were moral diplomacy and dollar
diplomacy the same? How were they different?
Both were intended to help Latin American
countries as well as the United States. The
difference was that “moral diplomacy” would
help only democratic countries that were friendly
with the United States.