Barron's Ch 11 Vocabulary

Mi Mumuwin
Angie Ngo
Chapter 11 Vocabulary, People.
Adventitious roots
Aerial roots
Alternation of generations
Apical dominance
Apical meristem
Bundle sheath cells
Casparian strip
Cell walls
Circadian rhythm
A root that arises from any plant part other
than the primary root
A root that develops from a location on a plant
above the surface of the earth or water, as
from a stem
The regular alternation of forms or of mode of
reproduction in the life cycle of an organism,
such as the alternation between diploid and
haploid phases, or between sexual and asexual
reproductive cycles
flowering plants that produce seeds enclosed
in an ovary
The preferential growth of a plant upward
(towards the sun) rather than laterally
A meristem is the tissue in all plants consisting
of undifferentiated cells (meristematic cells)
and found in zones of the plant where growth
can take place.
Programmed cell death
Organisms that synthesize their own nutrients
A plant hormone that stimulates stem
elongation and growth, enhances apical
dominance, and is responsible for tropisms
The rabid growth of a floral stalk
Nonvascular plants, including mosses
A type of photosynthetic plant ce;; that is
tightly packed around the veins in a leaf
A band of cell wall material deposited on the
radial and transverse walls of the endodermis,
which is chemically different from the rest of
the cell wall. It is used to block the passive
flow of materials, such as water and solutes
into the stele of a plant
A rigid layer of polysaccharides lying outside
the plasma membrane of the cells of plants,
fungi, and bacteria
Biological clock set to 24 hour day
Collenchymal cells
Companion cell
Dermal tissue
Double fertilization
Embryonic root
The sticking together of particles of the same
A supportive tissue of plants, consisting of
elongated living cells with unevenly thickened
Plant cells with unevenly thickened primary
cell walls that are alive at maturity and that
function to support the growing stem
Connected to each sieve tube member in the
phloem and nurtures the sieve tube elements
The region of tissue in a root or stem lying
between the epidermis and the vascular tissue
An embryonic leaf in seed-bearing plants, one
or more of which are the first leaves to appear
from a germinating seed.
The main component of the wxy cuticle
covering leaves to minimize water loss
Plants that flower regardless of the length of
Functions to protect the plant from injury and
water loss. Dermal tissue covers the outside of
the plant, except in woody shrubs and trees,
which have bark.
Flowering plant with two cotyledons
A Ssubdivision of flowering plants whose
members possess an embryonic seed made of
two halves or cotyledons
Containing two complete sets of
chromosomes, one from each parent.
A complex fertilization mechanism that has
evolved in angiosperms. This process involves
the joining of a female gametophyte (embryo
sac) with two male gametes (sperm)
An unborn or unhatched offspring in the
process of development.
Root that is initiated in the developing embryo
Tightly packed layer of cells that surrounds the
vascular cylinder in the root of a plant
Part of the developing embryo that will
become the upper part of the stem and the
leaves of the plant
A single-layered group of cells that covers
plants leaves, flowers, roots and stems. It
Fibrous root system
Flowering plants
Ground meristem
Ground tissue
Guard cells
forms a boundary between the plant and the
external world
Is the opposite of a taproot system. It is
usually formed by thin, moderately branching
roots growing from the stem. This system is
universal in monocotyledonous plants and
When plants lose their rigidity
Angiosperms- plants having seeds in a closed
A part of a flowering plant that derives from
specific tissues of the flower, one or more
ovaries, and in some cases accessory tissues
A protective jacket of cells that prevents some
plants’ gametes and zygotes from drying out
The monoploid generation of a plant
Growth of plants towards gravity
Plant hormone that promotes stem elongation
A meristem is the tissue in all plants consisting
of undifferentiated cells (meristematic cells)
and found in zones of the plant where growth
can take place
The most common tissue type in a plant,
functions mainly in support and consists of
parenchyma, collenchyma, and sclerenchyma
One of the paired epidermal cells that control
the opening and closing of a stoma in plant
Due to root pressure, droplets of water appear
in the morning on the leaf tips of some
herbaceous leaves
Conifers or cone-bearing plants
Having a single set of unpaired chromosomes.
Relating to or characteristic of an herb as
distinguished from a woody plant
A plant that produces to kinds of spores, male
and female
Producing spores of one kind only that are not
differentiated by sex
Part of the developing embryo that will
becomes the lower part of the stem and roots
the phenomenon by which the living or dead
Indoleacetic acid
Lateral meristem
Lateral roots
Leaf abscission
Long-day plants
Negative tropism
Parenchymal cells
Pfr (infared light absorbing)
plant cell absorbs water by surface attraction.
A naturally occurring auxin
Growth region of a plant the provides
secondary growth, increase in girth
Roots that extend horizontally from the
primary root and serve to anchor the plant
securely into the soil.
When a leaf dies and falls from the plant. A
scar forms at the abscission layer to prevent
pathogens from entering the plant
A complex organic polymer deposited in the
cell walls of many plants, making them rigid
and woody.
Plants that flower only when light period is
longer than a certain number of hours
In flowering plants, they produce the ova
A region of plant tissue consisting of actively
dividing cells forming new tissue
A small fibril in the cytoplasm or wall of a cell,
visible only under an electron microscope, and
typically aggregated into coarser fibrils or
The opening to the ovule in a flowering plant
In flowering plants, they produce sperm
A subdivision of flowering plants whose
members possess one embryonic seed leaf or
Growth of plant away from stimulus
of the female reproductive organ of the flower
or gynoecium
Cells found within the mesophyll in leaves of
dicotyledonous plants
The cellular tissue, typically soft and succulent,
found chiefly in the softer parts of leaves, pulp
of fruits, bark and pith of stems, etc
Traditional plant cells with primary walls that
are thin and flexible and that lack secondary
cell walls
A thin layer of plant tissue between the
endodermis and the phloem
Form of phytochrome
Transport vessels in plants that carry sugars
from the photosynthetic leaves to the rest of
Polar bodies
Positive tropism
Pr (red light absorbing)
Primary growth
Prop roots
Root cap
Root hairs
the plant by active transport
Environmental stimulus plants use to detect
time of year
Physiological response to photoperiod
Plant growth towards light
Growth of plant towards light
Photoreceptor responsible for keeping track of
the length of day and night
A usually continuous central strand of spongy
tissue in the stems of most vascular plants
A cavity in the wall of a plant cell where there
is no secondary wall, as in fibers, tracheids,
and vessels.
Organelles in plant cells, including
chloroplasts, chromoplasts, and leucoplasts
Each of the small cells that bud off from an
oocyte at the two meiotic divisions and do not
develop into ova.
One pollen grain contains three monoploid
nuclei, one tube nucleus, and two sperm
The transfer of pollen from the stamen to the
Growth of plant towards stimulus
Form of phytochrome
The growth a plant by the actions of apical
meristems on the shoot and root apices in
producing plant primary tisues
A meristem that lies just inside the protoderm
and develops into primary xylem and primary
A root that grows from and supports the stem
above the ground in plants
A meristem is the tissue in all plants consisting
of undifferentiated cells (meristematic cells)
and found in zones of the plant where growth
can take place.
In the embryonic root, the first organ to
emerge from the germinating seed
Thimble-shaped mass of cells covering and
protecting the growing tip of a root
A thin hairlike outgrowth of an epidermal cell
of a plant root that absorbs water and
Root pressure
Schlerenchymal cells
Secondary growth
Seed coat
Seedless tracheophytes
Short-day plants
Sieve plates
Sieve tube members
Signal transduction pathways
Sperm nuclei
Spongy mesophyll
minerals from the soil
Osmotic pressure within the cells of a root
system that causes sap to rise through a plant
stem to the leaves.
The part of a plant that attaches it to the
ground or to a support, conveying water and
nourishment to the rest of the plant
Plant cells with very thick primary and
secondary cell walls fortified with lignin
Strengthening tissue in a plant, formed from
thick-walled cells.
Growth produced by lateral meristems,
thickening the roots and shoots of woody
A flowering plant's unit of reproduction,
capable of developing into another such plant
The protective outer coat of a seed.
Plants that reproduce with spores and have
roots, stems, and leaves
Plants that flower only when light period is
shorter than a certain number of hours
Sieve plates are the perforated end part of
tube sieve cells, the cells that connect end to
end to form a plant's phloem
A specialized type of elongated cell in the
phloem tissue of flowering plants. The main
function of the sieve tube is transport of
carbohydrates, primarily sucrose, in the plant
(e.g., from the leaves to the fruits and roots)
A set of chemical reactions in a cell that occurs
when a molecule, such as a hormone, attaches
to a receptor on the cell membrane. The
pathway is actually a cascade of biochemical
reactions inside the cell that eventually reach
the target molecule or reaction.
when cells specialize in certain duties
One of the two nuclei in a pollen grain that
function in double fertilization in seed plants
A leaf tissue consisting of loosely arranged,
chloroplast-bearing, usually lobed cells. The
spongy mesophyll's function is to allow for the
interchange of gases (CO2) that are needed
Transpirational pull
Transpirational pull-cohesion theory
Tube nucleus
for photosynthesis
A minute, typically one-celled, reproductive
unit capable of giving rise to a new individual
without sexual fusion.
A major component of the tough outer (exine)
walls of spores and pollen grains
Specialized plastids containing dense starch
The male fertilizing organ of a flower, typically
consisting of a pollen-containing anther and a
The vascular cylinder of the root, consisting of
vascular tissue
Is part of the female reproductive system of
some plants. It collects pollen for the plant or
A minute epidermal pore in a leaf or stem
through which gases and water vapor can
An inert impermeable waxy substance present
in the cell walls of corky tissues.
A primary root that grows vertically downward
and gives off small lateral roots; occurs in
dicots. Root system in plants characterized by
one root longer than the other roots.
Growth of plants towards touch
Long, thin cells that overlap and are tapered at
the ends and that, along with vessel elements,
make p xylem in a plant
Plants that have transport vessels, xylem, and
Loss of water from stomates in leaves
The main phenomenon driving the flow of
water in the xylem tissues of large plants
For each molecule of water that evaporates
from a leaf by transpiration, another molecule
of water is drawn in at the root to replace it
A chromosome mutation where an organism
has three sets of chromosomes instead of two
One of the cells in the male gametophyte in
seed plants. The tube nucleus grows through
the stigma, style, and into the ovule, clearing
the way for the sperm nuclei to enter the
embryo sac.
Vascular bundles
Vascular cylinder
Vascular tissue
Vegetative propagation
Vessel elements
Wax cuticle
Woody plants
zone of cell division
Zone of differentiation
Zone of elongation
A strand of conducting vessels in the stem or
leaves of a plant, typically with phloem on the
outside and xylem on the inside
A central column formed by the vascular
tissue of a plant root; surrounded by
parenchymal ground tissue
The tissue in higher plants that constitutes the
vascular system, consisting of phloem and
xylem, by which water and nutrients are
conducted throughout the plant
Vegetative reproduction is a form of asexual
reproduction in plants, a process by which
new individuals arise without production of
seeds or spores.
A vessel element is one of the cell types found
in xylem, the water conducting tissue of
plants. Vessel elements are typically found in
the angiosperms but absent from most
gymnosperms such as the conifers.
a protective waxy coating on the outside of
the leaf blade which protects against water
A plant that uses wood as its structural tissue
The vascular tissue in plants that conducts
water and dissolved nutrients upward from
the root and also helps to form the woody
element in the stem
Gives rise to the primary body of the plant.
Area in plant roots where recently produced
cells develop into different cell types
Area in plant roots where recently produced
cells grow and elongate prior to