Fragments, Run-Ons, & Comma Splices Grammar Unit 3 Part 1: Fragments Fragment = a sentence that doesn’t have an independent clause (has a subject & a verb) Ex: Hit the winning run. (no subject) A Dependent Clause has a subject and verb, but it leaves the reader hanging. After Mario hit the winning run. (What?) Although the weather was cold. (What?) So, dependent clauses STANDING ALONE are fragments! More Fragments Phrase (missing subject and/or verb) = fragment In the morning. Wore a blue suit. Dependent clauses and phrases are important to our writing b/c they add details, but they CANNOT be sentences by themselves. How to Identify Fragments Step 1: Find the verb, and double underline it. No verb = Phrase = Fragment Verb – Go to Step 2. Early in the morning. (No verb=Phrase=Fragment) After Mark drove all night. (Verb – Step 2) Step 2: Find the subject and underline it. No subject = Phrase = Fragment Subject – You have a clause. Go to Step 3. Drove all night. (No subject=Phrase=Fragment) After Mark drove all night. (Verb & Subject=Clause – Step 3) Step 3: You have a clause; determine which type (Independent or Dependent). Find the Subordinating Conjunction and underline it with a wavy line. Subordinating Conjunction and INCOMPLETE IDEA= Dependent Clause = Fragment No Subordinating Conjunction OR Subordinating Conjunction WITH a COMPLETE IDEA = Independent Clause = Complete Sentence Examples: After Mark drove all night. (SC and incomplete idea = Dependent Clause = Fragment) Mark drove all night. (No SC = Independent Clause = Complete Sentence) After Mark drove all night, he was tired. (SC and complete idea = Independent Clause = Complete Sentence) Fixing Fragments 2 ways to fix a fragment, and both involve erasing something Method #1 Erase the period and attach the fragment to a sentence that has an independent clause. In the morning. (Phrase=Fragment) Sherry jogs three miles. (IC=Sentence) In the morning, Sherry jogs three miles. OR Sherry jogs three miles in the morning. Method #2 If a fragment is a dependent clause, you can erase the subordinating conjunction and turn the dependent clause into an independent clause. When the dog chews the newspaper. (DC=Fragment) The dog chews the newspaper. Your Assignment… Complete the Practice Worksheet Be ready for a quiz on fragments and fixing fragments! Part 2: Comma Splices & Run-Ons Comma Splices & RunOns… Both have 2 independent clauses A comma splice has a comma between the 2 independent clauses Sue cooked dinner, Joe washed the dishes. A run-on doesn’t have a comma between the 2 independent clauses Sue cooked dinner Joe washed the dishes. Fixing Comma Splices & Run-Ons 4 methods to fix them Instead of erasing something, you add something. (opposite of fixing fragments) Method #1 Add a period at the spot where the 2 clauses meet to separate them into 2 sentences. Sue cooked dinner, Joe washed dishes. (comma splice) Sue cooked dinner. Joe washed dishes. (CORRECT) Method #2 Add a comma and a coordinating conjunction (FANBOYS) between the 2 independent clauses. Sue cooked dinner, Joe washed dishes. (comma splice) Sue cooked dinner, and Joe washed dishes. (CORRECT) Coordinating Conjunctions F A N B O O N O U R R D R T Y E T S O Know FANBOYS!!! They are the only words that can be used with a comma to separate 2 independent clauses. Method #3 Add a subordinating conjunction at the beginning of one of the independent clauses to make it dependent. Use the subordinating conjunction that fits the meaning of your sentence. A comma must follow the dependent clause when it is at the beginning of a sentence. Sue cooked dinner, Joe washed the dishes. (CS) After Sue cooked dinner, Joe washed the dishes. OR Sue cooked dinner before Joe washed the dishes. Method #4 Add a semi-colon (;) between the 2 clauses if they relate to one another. Sue cooked dinner, Joe washed the dishes. Sue cooked dinner; Joe washed the dishes. A variation of the semi-colon method: Add a conjunctive adverb (transitions) followed by a comma. Put the semi-colon after the 1st independent clause, then write the conjunctive adverb followed by a comma and the 2nd independent clause. Sue cooked dinner, Joe washed the dishes. Sue cooked dinner; therefore, Joe washed the dishes. Sue cooked dinner; consequently, Joe washed the dishes. Common Conjunctive Adverbs However Therefore Consequently Nevertheless Accordingly Furthermore Hence Moreover Also, look at your Transition Words List (in your definition essay packet) for more conjunctive adverbs. Your Assignment… Complete the practice worksheet and… Study for the quiz!!!