Rural Crime & Justice Center A University Center of Excellence Minot, North Dakota Opium Cocaine Marijuana Meth/Amphetamine Powder Pills Rocks/ Chunks Crystal Pre 1800s • In 1545, cannabis (marijuana) was introduced to the New World by the Spanish. • English settlers brought cannabis (hemp) to Jamestown, VA in 1611 where it became a major crop used to make rope, sails, and clothing. • George Washington grew cannabis (hemp) on his Mt. Vernon estate. Early 1800s • Marijuana plantations flourished across the Southern US, California, and New York. Until after the Civil War, marijuana was a major source of revenue for the US. Mid 1800s • Opium smoking was introduced to the US by Chinese laborers who came to work on the railroads. • In 1853, the hypodermic syringe was invented. • Injectable morphine was used by injured soldiers during the Civil War. Late 1800s • In 1884, the US Army Surgeon General endorsed the medical use of cocaine. At that time it was the only local anesthetic available. • In 1886, “Coca-Cola” was marketed as a syrup derived from coca leaves. • By 1890 cotton replaced hemp as the major cash crop in the South. Late 1800s • In 1898, the Bayer Chemical Company introduced heroin as a medicine and it quickly became an ingredient in other medications. • Marijuana was widely used across the US as a medicinal drug and could be easily purchased in pharmacies and general stores. Early 1900s • By 1902, there were an estimated 200,000 cocaine addicts in the US. • In 1903, the cocaine in Coca-Cola was replaced with caffeine. • The Pure Food and Drug Act passed in 1906. • Heroin is being used to treat morphine addiction. Early 1900s • The Harrison Narcotics Act (1914) regulated and taxed the production and distribution of opiates and cocaine. • Amphetamine was used to treat epilepsy, schizophrenia, alcoholism, opiate addiction, migraines, head injuries, and irradiation sickness in the late 1920s. • Prohibition 1919-1933 Early 1900s • In 1932, amphetamine was first marketed as Benzedrine, an over-the-counter inhaler to treat congestion. • Marijuana Tax Act of 1937 • In 1937, amphetamine became available in a tablet form by prescription and was found to have a positive effect on some children with ADHD. Mid 1900s 1939 – 1945 (World War II) • An estimated 200 million amphetamine tablets were distributed to American troops. Longest recorded period of wakefulness was 54 days! • After the war, physicians prescribed amphetamines as a diet aid and anti-depressant. Mid 1900s • Heroin use increased during the 30s and 40s through the Harlem jazz scene. • In 1956, heroin was outlawed and all remaining stocks were required to be surrendered to the federal government. • The practice of injecting amphetamines (particularly methamphetamine) occurred during the 1950s, but the practice did not spread until the 1960s. Late 1900s The Controlled Substances Act of 1970 placed all drugs into one of five schedules. Restricted the manufacture, distribution and use Limited the medically accepted uses Drug Identification Bible 2004-2005 www.drugidbible.com Controlled Substance Schedules Schedule I • High potential for abuse • No currently accepted medical use in treatment in the United States • Lack of accepted safety for use of the drug or other substance under medical supervision. • Heroin, lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), marijuana (cannabis), peyote, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (ecstasy). DEA Controlled Substance Schedules Schedule II • High potential for abuse which may lead to severe psychological or physical dependence • Hydromorphone (Dilaudid®), methadone (Dolophine®), meperidine (Demerol®), oxycodone (OxyContin®), and fentanyl (Sublimaze® or Duragesic®). • Amphetamine (Dexedrine®, Adderall®), methamphetamine (Desoxyn®), methylphenidate (Ritalin®), cocaine DEA Controlled Substance Schedules Schedule III • Potential for abuse less than schedules I or II and abuse may lead to moderate or low physical dependence or high psychological dependence • Combination products containing less than 15mg of hydrocodone per dose (Vicodin®) • Products containing not more than 90mg of codeine per dose (Tylenol with codeine®) DEA Controlled Substance Schedules Schedule IV • Low potential for abuse relative to substances in schedule III • Propoxyphene (Darvon® and Darvocet-N 100®) • Alprazolam (Xanax®), clonazepam (Klonopin®), diazepam (Valium®), lorazepam (Ativan®), triazolam (Halcion®) DEA Controlled Substance Schedules Schedule V • Low potential for abuse relative to schedule IV and consist primarily of preparations containing limited quantities of certain narcotics • Generally used for antitussive, antidiarrheal, and analgesic purposes • Cough preparations containing no more than 200mg of codeine per 100 milliliters or per 100 grams (Robitussin AC® and Phenergan with Codeine®). DEA Any Questions?