Rural Crime & Justice Center
A University Center of Excellence
Minot, North Dakota
Pre 1800s
• In 1545, cannabis (marijuana) was
introduced to the New World by the
• English settlers brought cannabis (hemp) to
Jamestown, VA in 1611 where it became a
major crop used to make rope, sails, and
• George Washington grew cannabis (hemp)
on his Mt. Vernon estate.
Early 1800s
• Marijuana plantations flourished across the
Southern US, California, and New York.
Until after the Civil
War, marijuana was
a major source of
revenue for the US.
Mid 1800s
• Opium smoking was introduced to the US by
Chinese laborers who came to work on the
• In 1853, the hypodermic syringe was
• Injectable morphine was used by injured
soldiers during the Civil War.
Late 1800s
• In 1884, the US Army Surgeon General
endorsed the medical use of cocaine. At
that time it was the only local anesthetic
• In 1886, “Coca-Cola” was marketed as a
syrup derived from coca leaves.
• By 1890 cotton replaced hemp as the
major cash crop in the South.
Late 1800s
• In 1898, the Bayer Chemical Company
introduced heroin as a medicine
and it quickly became an
ingredient in other medications.
• Marijuana was widely used
across the US as a medicinal drug
and could be easily purchased in
pharmacies and general stores.
Early 1900s
• By 1902, there were an estimated 200,000
cocaine addicts in the US.
• In 1903, the cocaine in Coca-Cola was
replaced with caffeine.
• The Pure Food and Drug Act passed in
• Heroin is being used to treat morphine
Early 1900s
• The Harrison Narcotics Act (1914)
regulated and taxed the production and
distribution of opiates and cocaine.
• Amphetamine was used to treat epilepsy,
schizophrenia, alcoholism, opiate
addiction, migraines, head injuries, and
irradiation sickness in the late 1920s.
• Prohibition 1919-1933
Early 1900s
• In 1932, amphetamine was first marketed
as Benzedrine, an over-the-counter inhaler
to treat congestion.
• Marijuana Tax Act of 1937
• In 1937, amphetamine became available in
a tablet form by prescription and was
found to have a positive effect on some
children with ADHD.
Mid 1900s
1939 – 1945 (World War II)
• An estimated 200 million amphetamine
tablets were distributed to American troops.
Longest recorded period of
wakefulness was 54 days!
• After the war, physicians prescribed
amphetamines as a diet aid
and anti-depressant.
Mid 1900s
• Heroin use increased during the 30s and
40s through the Harlem jazz scene.
• In 1956, heroin was outlawed and all
remaining stocks were required to be
surrendered to the federal government.
• The practice of injecting amphetamines
(particularly methamphetamine) occurred
during the 1950s, but the practice did not
spread until the 1960s.
Late 1900s
The Controlled Substances Act of 1970 placed
all drugs into one of five schedules.
 Restricted the manufacture,
distribution and use
 Limited the medically
accepted uses
Drug Identification Bible
2004-2005 www.drugidbible.com
Controlled Substance Schedules
Schedule I
• High potential for abuse
• No currently accepted medical use in treatment in
the United States
• Lack of accepted safety for use of the drug or other
substance under medical supervision.
• Heroin, lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), marijuana
(cannabis), peyote,
3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (ecstasy).
Controlled Substance Schedules
Schedule II
• High potential for abuse which may lead to severe
psychological or physical dependence
• Hydromorphone (Dilaudid®), methadone
(Dolophine®), meperidine (Demerol®), oxycodone
(OxyContin®), and fentanyl (Sublimaze® or
• Amphetamine (Dexedrine®, Adderall®),
methamphetamine (Desoxyn®), methylphenidate
(Ritalin®), cocaine
Controlled Substance Schedules
Schedule III
• Potential for abuse less than schedules I or II and
abuse may lead to moderate or low physical
dependence or high psychological dependence
• Combination products containing less than 15mg of
hydrocodone per dose (Vicodin®)
• Products containing not more than 90mg of codeine
per dose (Tylenol with codeine®)
Controlled Substance Schedules
Schedule IV
• Low potential for abuse relative to substances in
schedule III
• Propoxyphene (Darvon® and Darvocet-N 100®)
• Alprazolam (Xanax®), clonazepam (Klonopin®),
diazepam (Valium®), lorazepam (Ativan®),
triazolam (Halcion®)
Controlled Substance Schedules
Schedule V
• Low potential for abuse relative to schedule IV and
consist primarily of preparations containing limited
quantities of certain narcotics
• Generally used for antitussive, antidiarrheal, and
analgesic purposes
• Cough preparations containing no more than
200mg of codeine per 100 milliliters or per 100
grams (Robitussin AC® and Phenergan with
Any Questions?