The Roman Republic Notes over Chapter 8, Section 2 1. There were two main classes of people during Ancient Rome—the Patricians and the Plebeians. 2. The patricians were the upper class, the nobility and wealthy land owners, while the Plebeians were the lower class. Nicknamed "plebs", the plebeians included everyone else in Ancient Rome. Things that were the same in both classes Pater Familias: The family was structured in the same way in both classes. The head of the family was the oldest male. That could be the father, the grandfather, or perhaps even an uncle. Everybody in one family lived under one roof. Women had no authority except in the home. Old age was honored. Atrium: Life in the home of wealthy tradesmen and patricians centered around the atrium, the central courtyard. Slaves: If they could afford it, both classes had slaves to do the work. Citizenship: The citizens of Rome were adult freemen from both classes - plebs and patricians. Women, children, and slaves were not citizens. People from all classes considered themselves Romans. Religion: Both classes worshiped the same gods and attended religious festivals. Language: Both classes spoke the same language, Latin. Forum: Both classes enjoyed the activities in the Forum, including the many free activities such as jugglers. Forum = town square or downtown area Remains of Roman Forum Things that were different Social Life: A wealthy plebeian family and a wealthy patrician family did not meet socially. Under the kings, it was illegal for a pleb and a patrician to marry. In 445 BC, about 60 years after the Roman Republic was formed, a new law was written that said it was no longer illegal for plebs and patricians to marry. Apartment Houses: Many plebeians lived in apartment houses called flats. Some of the apartments were above or behind their shops. Even fairly wealthy tradesmen might choose to live in an apartment over their store, with perhaps renters on the upper stories. Their own apartments might be quite roomy, sanitary and pleasant, occasionally with running water. Others were not that nice. The Poor, Unsanitary Living Conditions: In the poorer apartment houses, an entire plebeian family (grandparents, parents, children) might all be crowded into one room, without running water. They had to haul their water in from public facilities. Fire was a very real threat because people were cooking meals in crowded quarters, and many of the flats were made of wood. They did not have toilets. They had to use public latrines (toilets). The lower class Romans (plebeians) might have a breakfast of bread, dry or dipped in wine, and water. Sometimes olives, cheese, or raisins were sprinkled on the bread. Rich and Poor Life Style: The rich had beautiful mosaics on the floors of their home. They wore lots of jewelry made of gold and gemstones. They had beautiful clothing. They enjoyed a great deal of leisure time. The poor wore shabby clothing. Their jewelry was made of painted clay. They worked all the time. 3. Plebeians challenged the class system by going on strike. In other words, they got plain fed up and decided to something. What is a strike? We will revisit this strike with an in-class activity in the near future. Now, read pages 274-276 finish the rest of your notes. Where was Carthage located? On the coast of North Africa The first Punic War began as a dispute between ___Rome______________ and _______Carthage_____________. What were they fighting for? Over control of the island of Sicily How long did the war last and who won? The First Punic War lasted for 20 years before Rome won. Who was Hannibal? A great general from Carthage who fought in the Second Punic War. What happened to Carthage during the Third Punic War? Rome destroyed Carthage during the Third Punic War. What new lands did Rome acquire during the Punic Wars? Rome took all of Greece and Macedonia and parts of Africa during the Punic Wars.