From Globes to Maps
Globe is a three-dimensional scale
model of Earth. Presents the most
accurate depiction of geographic
Map is a symbolic
representation of all or part of
the earth on a flat piece of
paper. Maps can be useful in
showing small areas in great
From 3-D to 2D
•Cartographers use mathematical formulas to
transfer information from a round globe to a flat
•To create maps, cartographers project the round
earth onto a flat surface – making a map
Basic Categories of Map
Planar – Shows the earth
centered in such a way that
a strait line coming from the
center to any other point
represents the shortest
distance. It is most accurate
at its center (the poles).
Basic Categories of Map
Cylindrical – is based on the projection of the globe onto a
cylinder. This projection is most accurate near the equator.
Basic Categories of Map
Conic – Is created by
placing a cone over part of
the globe. It is best suited
for showing limited eastwest areas that are not too
far from the equator.
Map Projections
Winkel Tripel Projection
Most widely used map
in the world. Provides
good balance between
the size and shape of
land areas as they are
shown on the map.
Robinson Projection
The continents appear
much as they do on the
globe however, there is
minor distortion near the
Goode's Interrupted Equal-Area Projection
A map that looks
something like a
globe that has been
cut apart and laid
flat. Shows the true
size and shape of
earth’s landmasses
but the distances
are somewhat
Mercator Projection
Once the most
commonly used
projection, increasingly
distorts size and
distance as it moves
away from the equator.
Map Features
• Has been described as the meeting place
of art and science.
• The primary purpose of a map is to show
information or a geological concept or
• Maps must show an accurate relationship
between objects and features
Basic Map Elements
Compass Rose
• Showing North
• Illustrates Cardinal Directions
Basic Map Elements
Map Scale
The relationship between a distance on a
map and the corresponding distance on
the earth's surface.
Basic Map Elements
Map Legend
A table of symbols used on a map or chart
What is required in your map
Geographic Grid
Compass Rose
Political (Cities, Countries, States) and
Physical features (Landforms and bodies
of water)
• Date
• Name of Cartographer