Racial Segregation and the Rise of the Jim Crow Laws SOL USII.3c Segregation Takes Shape Constitutional Amendments Racial Segregation Black Codes Jim Crow Laws Key Figures Groups After the Civil War The United States Constitution Adopted: • 13th Amendment: Abolishment of Slavery www.historicaldocuments.com/13thAmendment.htm After the Civil War U.S. Constitution Adopted • 14th Amendment: 1. Defines American Citizenship 2. Prohibited the Abridging the Privileges of Citizens 3. Applied the Due Process Clause (5th Amendment) 4. Guaranteed “equal protection of the laws” to all citizens After the Civil War The U.S. Constitution Adopted: • 15th Amendment: Gives U.S. Citizens the right to vote and voters can not be discriminated based on race, color or “previous condition of servitude” Racial Segregation What is Racial Segregation? Separation of a certain group of people, based on their race Discrimination: judge, treat differently Race: category of people labeled and treated as similar because of some common biological traits, such as skin color, texture of hair, and shape of eyes http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Racial_segregation Black Codes Laws to take away the Civil Rights of African Americans. Occurred in former Confederate States 1860s state by state basis Examples of Black Codes: Literacy Tests to vote Licenses required for work, marriage, weapons, property ownership NO Vagrancy required to work Codes regulated the type of work and the hours Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) •The Plessy decision made Jim Crow laws legal. •Therefore, according to the Supreme Court, segregation is legal. Definitions: De jure = by law De facto = in practice Jim Crow Laws Definition: Laws that separated/segregated African Americans and other non-white racial groups from White Americans. Some commonly segregated spaces as a result of Jim Crow were: •schools •public areas •transportation •restrooms •restaurants Rise of Jim Crow Pro Jim Crow Groups Klu Klux Klan Democratic Party Lynching •Definition: to lynch means to put to death (usually by hanging) by mob action without due process of the law or legal sanction. •Term coined in 1830s after vigilante William Lynch. •Many types of people were lynched throughout history, from outlaws in the American West to immigrants in American cities, but that the vast majority of lynching victims have been African-American men. •Between 1882 and 1968, mobs lynched 4,743 persons in the United States, over 70% of them African-Americans. •By the late 1920s, 95% of U.S. lynchings occurred in the South. •By 1950, lynchings virtually disappeared due to anti-lynching efforts headed by the NAACP. Without Sanctuary: Photographs and Postcards of Lynching in America http://www.withoutsanctuary.org/main.html Ku Klux Klan (KKK) Definition: a white supremacist group originating in the South after the Civil War. The KKK has been responsible for countless acts of terrorism, violence, and lynching all intended to intimidate, murder and oppress African Americans, Jews, and other minorities. Membership Alleged Klan Members: Harry Truman Warren G. Harding 16 Senators 11 Governors ? # Representatives 1920 = 4,000,000 1930 = 30,000 1980 = 5,000 2008 = 6,000 Rise of Jim Crow Key Figures/ Groups Anti-Jim Crow W.E.B. Du Bois Booker T. Washington NAACP How Did Washington and Du Bois Differ in Response to the Laws? Booker T. Washington W.E.B. Du Bois He accepted social segregation He believe equality among the races could be achieved through vocational education. He believed in total social, political, and civil rights for all African Americans. He did not accept segregation and he wanted an end to discrimination. He started the NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People) He started the Tuskegee Vocational School (1881) Civil Rights v. Human Rights Definition: a contract between citizens and their government, where the government spells out rights afforded to its citizens. Definition: inherent rights that all people have simply because they are human. Not necessarily guaranteed by a government. Examples: Examples: Right to bear arms Right to food and water Freedom of or from religion Right to marry Right to vote Right to refuse to kill Freedom from excessive bail Right to rest and leisure BUT, there’s a lot of overlap. Many of the rights found in our US Constitution are also found in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. For example: freedom from slavery or servitude, freedom from cruel or unusual punishment, right to equal protection under the law.