Racial Segregation and the Rise of the Jim Crow Laws

Racial Segregation
and the
Rise of the Jim Crow
Segregation Takes Shape
 Constitutional
 Racial Segregation
 Black Codes
 Jim Crow Laws
 Key Figures
 Groups
After the Civil War
The United States Constitution Adopted:
13th Amendment:
Abolishment of Slavery
After the Civil War
U.S. Constitution Adopted
• 14th Amendment:
1. Defines American Citizenship
2. Prohibited the Abridging the
Privileges of Citizens
3. Applied the Due Process
Clause (5th Amendment)
4. Guaranteed “equal protection
of the laws” to all citizens
After the Civil War
The U.S. Constitution Adopted:
15th Amendment:
Gives U.S. Citizens the right to vote and voters can not
be discriminated based on race, color or “previous condition
of servitude”
Racial Segregation
What is Racial Segregation?
Separation of a certain group of
people, based on their race
Discrimination: judge, treat
Race: category of people labeled and
treated as similar because of some
common biological traits, such as skin
color, texture of hair, and shape of eyes
Black Codes
Laws to take away the Civil Rights of
African Americans.
Occurred in former Confederate States
state by state basis
Examples of Black Codes:
Literacy Tests to vote
Licenses required for work, marriage, weapons,
property ownership
NO Vagrancy
required to work
Codes regulated the type of work and the hours
Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)
•The Plessy decision
made Jim Crow laws
•Therefore, according to
the Supreme Court,
segregation is legal.
De jure = by law
De facto = in practice
Jim Crow Laws
Definition: Laws that separated/segregated African Americans
and other non-white racial groups from White Americans.
Some commonly segregated spaces as a result of Jim Crow were:
•public areas
Rise of Jim Crow
Pro Jim Crow Groups
Klu Klux Klan
Democratic Party
•Definition: to lynch means to put to death (usually by
hanging) by mob action without due process of the law or
legal sanction.
•Term coined in 1830s after vigilante William Lynch.
•Many types of people were lynched throughout history, from outlaws in
the American West to immigrants in American cities, but that the vast
majority of lynching victims have been African-American men.
•Between 1882 and 1968, mobs lynched 4,743 persons in the United
States, over 70% of them African-Americans.
•By the late 1920s, 95% of U.S. lynchings occurred in the South.
•By 1950, lynchings virtually disappeared due to anti-lynching efforts
headed by the NAACP.
Without Sanctuary: Photographs and Postcards of Lynching in America
Ku Klux Klan (KKK)
Definition: a white supremacist group originating in the South after
the Civil War. The KKK has been responsible for countless acts of
terrorism, violence, and lynching all intended to intimidate, murder
and oppress African Americans, Jews, and other minorities.
Alleged Klan Members:
Harry Truman
Warren G. Harding
16 Senators
11 Governors
? # Representatives
1920 = 4,000,000
1930 = 30,000
1980 = 5,000
2008 = 6,000
Rise of Jim Crow
Key Figures/ Groups
Anti-Jim Crow
W.E.B. Du Bois
Booker T. Washington
How Did Washington and Du Bois
Differ in Response to the Laws?
Booker T. Washington
W.E.B. Du Bois
He accepted social segregation
He believe equality among the
races could be achieved through
vocational education.
He believed in total social,
political, and civil rights for all
African Americans.
He did not accept segregation and
he wanted an end to
He started the NAACP (National
Association for the Advancement
of Colored People)
He started the Tuskegee
Vocational School (1881)
Civil Rights v. Human Rights
Definition: a contract between
citizens and their government,
where the government spells out
rights afforded to its citizens.
Definition: inherent rights that
all people have simply because
they are human. Not necessarily
guaranteed by a government.
Right to bear arms
Right to food and water
Freedom of or from religion
Right to marry
Right to vote
Right to refuse to kill
Freedom from excessive bail
Right to rest and leisure
BUT, there’s a lot of overlap. Many of the rights found in our US
Constitution are also found in the Universal Declaration of Human
Rights. For example: freedom from slavery or servitude, freedom from
cruel or unusual punishment, right to equal protection under the law.