Leadership Styles and working with teams What is Leadership ? Leadership is about behaviour first, skills second. Good leaders are followed because people trust and respect them, not for the skills they possess. Leadership is different to management. Leadership needs management skills, plus integrity, honesty, humility, courage, commitment, sincerity, passion, confidence, positivity, wisdom, determination, compassion, sensitivity and personality. What is Leadership Style? … the manner and approach of providing direction, implementing plans, and motivating people. Kurt Lewin (1939) led a group of researchers to identify different styles of leadership. This early study has been very influential and set three major leadership styles. 3 Styles The three major styles of leadership are: Authoritarian or autocratic - ‘Boss’ Participative or democratic - ‘Teamwork’ Delegative or Free Reign - ‘Multidisciplined’ Although good leaders use all three styles, with one of them normally dominant, bad leaders tend to stick with one style. Authoritarian (autocratic) “I want both of you to...” This style is used when leaders tell their employees what they want done and how, without getting the advice of their team. It can be used when you have all the information to solve the problem, you are short on time, and your employees are well motivated. Some people think of this style as yelling, using bossy language and threats and abusing their power. This is not the authoritarian style, it is an abusive, unprofessional style called bossing people around. It has no place in a leader's work. The authoritarian style should normally only be used on rare occasions. If you have the time and want to gain more commitment and motivation from your employees, then you should use the participative style. Participative (democratic) “Let's work together to solve this…” This style involves the leader including one or more employees in the decision making process (decide what to do and how to do it). However, the leader maintains the final decision-making authority. Using this style is not a sign of weakness, rather it is a sign of strength that your employees will respect. This is best used when you have part of the information, and your employees have other parts. A leader is not expected to know everything -- this is why you employ knowledgeable and skilful employees. Using this style is of mutual benefit -- it allows them to become part of the team and allows you to make better decisions. Delegative (free reign) “You two take care of the problem while I go…” In this style, the leader allows the employees to make the decisions. However, the leader is still responsible for the decisions that are made. This is used when employees are able to analyse the situation and determine what needs to be done and how to do it. You cannot do everything! You must set priorities and delegate certain tasks. This is not a style to use so that you can blame others when things go wrong, rather this is a style to be used when you fully trust and have confidence in the people below you. Do not be afraid to use it, however, use it wisely! Where are we ? What is the system in use in Cambodia most often? What about INGOs? Forces A good leader uses all three styles, depending on what forces are involved between the followers, the leader, and the situation. Some examples include: Use an authoritarian style on a new employee who is just learning the job. The leader is competent and a good coach. The employee is motivated to learn a new skill. The situation is a new environment for the employee. Use a participative style with a team of workers who know their job. The leader knows the problem, but does not have all the information. The employees know their jobs and want to become part of the team. Use a delegative style with a worker who knows more about the job than you. The employee needs to take ownership of her job. Also, the situation might call for you to be at other places, doing other things. Use all three: Tell your employees that a procedure is not working correctly and a new one must be established (authoritarian). Ask for their ideas on creating a new procedure (participative). Give tasks in order to implement the new procedure (delegative). Forces that influence the style to be used include: How much time you have. Are relationships based on respect and trust or on disrespect? Who has the information - you, your employees, or both? How well your team is trained and how well you know the task. Internal conflicts. Stress levels. Type of task. Is it structured, unstructured, complicated, or simple? Laws or established procedures such as safety or training plans. Positive and Negative Approaches There is a difference in ways leaders approach their team. Positive leaders use rewards, such as education, independence, etc. to motivate employees, while negative employers emphasize penalties. The negative approach has a place in a leader's tools, but it must be used carefully because it costs in morale. Positive and Negative Approaches Negative leaders act bossy and superior with people. They believe the only way to get things done is through penalties, such as loss of job, days off without pay, reprimand employees in front of others, etc. They believe their authority is increased by frightening everyone. Yet what happens when this approach is used badly is that morale falls; and also productivity. Note that most leaders do not use one or the other, but are somewhere in the middle. People who always work by negatives are bosses while those who mostly work by positives are real leaders. Stoppers and Starters Herzberg (1966) developed a list of factors that are based on Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs, except his version is more closely related to the working environment. Factors that demotivate You need to get these right: Working conditions Policies and administrative practices Salary and Benefits Supervision Status Job security Co-workers Personal life Motivators or Satisfiers These encourage staff: Recognition Achievement Advancement Growth Responsibility Job challenge Get it right The right conditions must be present in the job before motivators can be used to stimulate people. That is, you cannot use motivators until all the stopper factors are met. Building on this, Herzberg used the term "job enrichment" to describe redesigning work to build in motivators. Consideration and Structure Two related approaches that leaders use are: Consideration (employee orientation) - Leaders are concerned about the human needs of their employees. They build teamwork, help employees with their problems, and provide psychological support. Structure (task orientation) - Leaders believe that they get results by consistently keeping people busy and urging them to produce. There is evidence that leaders who are considerate in their leadership style are higher performers and are more satisfied with their job consideration and structure are separate, and not opposites. For example, a leader who becomes more considerate, does not become less structured. Paternalism Paternalism is confused with leadership. But most definitions of leadership talk about influencing. Leadership is influencing people -- by providing purpose, direction, and motivation -while operating to accomplish the mission and improving the organization." Influence is a means of getting people to do what you want them to do. It is the way to achieve two ends: operating and improving. But there’s more to influencing than simply passing along orders. The example you set is just as important as the words you speak. And you set an example -- good or bad -- with every action you take and word you utter. Through your words and example, you must communicate purpose, direction, and motivation. While "paternalism" is: a system under which an authority undertakes to supply needs or regulate conduct of those under its control ... So paternalism supplies needs for those under its protection or control, while leadership gets things done. Power Difference Power Difference is the degree of equality, or inequality, between people in a society. It shows how much the less powerful members of organisations and institutions (for example, the family) accept and expect that power is distributed unequally. The inequality is accepted by the followers as much as by the leaders. Power Difference Index (PDI) Geert Hofstede (1977) studied culture within organisations. He developed a Power Difference Index (PDI) for 53 countries; scores ranged from 11 to 104 and averaged 55. Power Difference Index (PDI) Geert Hofstede (1977) studied culture within organisations. He developed a Power Difference Index (PDI) for 53 countries; scores ranged from 11 to 104 and averaged 55. The higher the number, the more autocratic and/or paternalistic the usual leadership is, which means employees are afraid or unwilling to disagree with their bosses. Lower numbers mean a more consultative style of leadership, and employees who are not as afraid of their bosses. Malaysia has the highest PDI score, 104, while Austria has the lowest with 11. As the story before shows, Sweden has a low score (31), while France is higher (68). The USA's is 40. Where are we? What do you think Cambodia’s score is? Where are we? Cambodia has a high PDI. Most Western countries have a low PDI. Leadership styles show this. Leadership Tips Team building success is when your team can accomplish something bigger and work more effectively than a group of the same individuals working on their own. Set Goals Make sure that the team goals are totally clear and completely understood and accepted by each team member. Make sure there is communication and you and your people stay fully informed. Divide the jobs Make sure it is clear who does what. Do your best to avoid overlaps of authority. Example: if two team members have control of a task, try to divide that task into two distinct parts and give each control of one (may be by skill strengths, what they like, or just divide by districts or similar) Involve all For something that needs the team to agree and commit, involve the whole team in the decision making process. For example, use group discussions of possible options. What you want here is each team member feels his or her ownership in the final idea. The more he or she feels this way, the more likely he or she is to agree with and commit to the decided line of action. Trust in you Build trust with your team members by spending one-on-one time in an atmosphere of openness and honesty. Be loyal to your employees, if you expect the same. Trust each other Allow your office team members build trust and openness between each other team building activities and events. extra social time with each other in an atmosphere that encourages open communication. For example, have a group meal on Friday Behaviour Be careful with interpersonal issues. Recognize them early and deal with them till full resolution. Act on any broken rules or poor behaviour. Encourage Do not only give negative feedback. Be fair. Whenever there is an opportunity, give positive feedback as well. Say thank you or show appreciation of an individual team player's work. Never miss opportunities to encourage your employees. Be specific. Be friends You can still be friends with your staff. They need to understand that you are being held accountable for their work and so there will be times when you have to be directive … but … there will be more times when you have to rely on them to help you. Good managers do not build barriers against people. Another view: don’t manage your people! Forget the idea that people can be managed. It’s not possible. The more you try to manage people the more likely they are to ‘fight back'. If you do fully control of people's behaviour you end up with a team that is unable to think for themselves. Give up managing people and start to manage systems. Systems and processes are controllable. They can be defined, measured and managed. The good part is that most people value a well-developed system because it makes life easier and more rewarding, so they will use it. By developing a good system you get the outcome you want - increased productivity and quality performance from your team. Provide the tools – the ‘servant leader’. What will work best for us? What style will work well at our office? What suits you as team leader? What is your staff used to? What are your staff ready for? Meetings Essential for the team to communicate information sharing all team effort directed to the same clear goals divide tasks Can be a very effective way to focus and improve efficiency Can be a complete waste of time Running Meetings Start with an Agenda All talk is “through the Chair” The Chairperson drives the meeting Keep to the Agenda What are the outputs? Meeting Outputs Understanding Team spirit List: Actions, Responsibilities, Times Feedback Practice working in a low PDI situation Feed back Too technical? Not detailed or practical? Too much, too little, off target, confusing, ….