Management16

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Objectives
1. A working definition of leadership
2. An understanding of the relationship between leading and managing
3. An appreciation for the trait and situational approaches to leadership
4. Insights into using leadership theories that emphasize decision-making
situations
5. Insights into using leadership theories that emphasize more general
organizational situations
6. An understanding of alternatives to leader flexibility
7. An appreciation of emerging leadership styles and leadership issues of
today
Defining Leadership
 Leader
Versus Manager
Managing
Broader in scope
Focuses on non-behavioral issues
Leading
Emphasizes behavioral issues
Defining Leadership
The Trait Approach to Leadership
Successful leaders tend to possess:
1. Intelligence, including judgment and verbal ability
2. Past achievement in scholarship and athletics
3. Emotional maturity and stability
4. Dependability, persistence, and a drive for continuing achievement
5. The skill to participate socially and adapt to various groups
6. A desire for status and socioeconomic position
The Situational Approach to Leadership: A Focus on Leader Behavior
 Leadership
 The
Situations and Decisions
Tannenbaum and Schmidt Leadership Continuum
The manager:
1. Makes the decision and announces it
2. “Sells” the decision
3. Presents ideas and invites questions
4. Presents a tentative decision that is subject to change
5. Presents the problem, gets suggestions, and then makes the decision
6. Defines the limits and asks the group to make a decision
7. Permits the group to make decisions within prescribed limits
The Situational Approach to Leadership: A Focus on Leader Behavior
 Leadership
Situations and Decisions (continued)
 Determining
How to Make Decisions as a Leader
1. Forces in the Manager

Manager’s values

Level of confidence in subordinates

Personal leadership strengths

Tolerance for ambiguity
The Situational Approach to Leadership: A Focus on Leader Behavior
 Leadership
Situations and Decisions (continued)
 Determining
How to Make Decisions as a Leader (continued)
2. Forces in Subordinates

They have a relatively high need for independence

They have a readiness to assume responsibility for decision making

They have a relatively high tolerance for ambiguity

They are interested in the problem and believe it is important to solve it

They understand and identify with the organization’s goals

They have necessary knowledge and experience to deal with problem

They have learned to expect to share in decision making
The Situational Approach to Leadership: A Focus on Leader Behavior
 Leadership
Situations and Decisions (continued)
 Determining
How to Make Decisions as a Leader (continued)
3. Forces in the Situation

Type of organization in which the leader works

Effectiveness of a group

Problem to be solved

Time available to make a decision
The Situational Approach to Leadership: A Focus on Leader Behavior
 Leadership
Situations and Decisions (continued)
 Determining
 The
How to Make Decisions as a Leader: An Update
Vroom-Yetton-Jago Model
1. Organizational decisions should be of high quality
2. Subordinates should accept and be committed decisions

Decision Styles

Using the Model
The Situational Approach to Leadership: A Focus on Leader Behavior
The Situational Approach to Leadership: A Focus on Leader Behavior
The Situational Approach to Leadership: A Focus on Leader Behavior
 Leadership
 Fiedler’s

Behaviors (continued)
Contingency Theory
Changing the Organization to Fit the Leader

Leader–member relations

Task structure

Position power
Actions to modify the leadership situation:
1. Change the individual’s task assignment
2. Change the leader’s position power
3. Change the leader–member relations in this group
Leadership Today
Leadership Today
Leadership Today
 Servant
Leadership
Servant leaders are . . .
. . . good listeners
. . . persuasive
. . . aware of their surroundings
. . . empathetic
. . . stewards
 Entrepreneurial
Leadership
Leader is self-employed