Curriculum Process

Curriculum Process
• the continuous cycle of
activities in which all
elements of the
curriculum are
considered and
• Portrays relationships
between all elements
all through
• Regardless of any approach
you choose,
• Curriculum process requires
consideration of all elements
• Most approaches have all
these four elements;
• Objective
• Content
• Learning experience
• Evaluation. However, of recent
a new element emerged that
requires consideration i.e.,
Situational Analysis
Now, what is situational analysis?
When making curriculum decisions
• it relies upon curriculum
developers to take
consideration of the basis of
their decision-making. In
other words;
• what are the sources from
which they make their
curriculum decisions;
• for whom are the decisions
being made and;
• in what context are they
To determine these sources, one
needs to examine both
• The curriculum
developers and
• The context in which
the curriculum is
• To do this, one need to
reflect back on the
previous topics or
should be able to align
oneself with the
following questions:
• With which conception
of curriculum do you
align yourself?
• Which model of the
curriculum process
would you apply?
• How do you perceive
In recent years, any curriculum
development must
• Take the consideration of
situational analysis
• Situational analysis is the
systematic process of
analyzing the situation
before the curriculum is
developed effectively.
• However, Hilda Taba
(1962) describes
situational Analysis as a
diagnosis of needs.
What is needs assessment?
• is the process by which
curriculum developers
can determine and
priorities educational
• The information obtained
from this process can
then be employed in
determining, or justifying,
a curriculum's aims, goals
and objectives.
• In this simpler form, we
can define situational
analysis as the process of
examining factors that
exist in the environment
or society where the
curriculum is going to be
• Factors such as;
• Internal and external
Internal factors includes
Nature of students
Nature of teachers
School atmosphere
Existing school material
• Perceived problems
• External factors
• Social Changes
• Educational system
• Subject matter
• Teacher support
• School resource inflow
How to undertake situational analysis?
• Identify problem/s in
context. What
problem/s or issues
have caused concern?
What do they mean in
the context of our
• Select appropriate
factors. What factors
(see Skilbeck; Soliman)
require greater
consideration? Do all
factors need to be
covered? Are there
other factors requiring
• Data collection and analysis.
What data need to be
collected? How will they be
obtained? What procedures
are used to analyse them?
What do the data reveal?
What trends if any, are
• Procedure/ data collection
(Quantitative/qualitative) eg.,
survey, interview,
• Interpretation of data
(Statistical analysis: based on
the use of questionnaires.
Where checklists, school
records, test results and so
forth are used, report results
in tabular form and where
appropriate use percentages.
• Questionnaire data should
always be presented as
• Data observation
• interpretation of data involves
analysing and synthesising the
data collected. This involves
three basic steps.
• Presenting all available data
• Comprehending that data
• Synthesising the data into
trends or patterns.
• Gather the collected data for
analysis; ( eg., questionnaire,
observation, checklists, needs
assessment, literature,
• Familiarize yourself thoroughly
on what the different forms of
data reveal
• Finally, look for trends or
pattern, eg., do the
questionnaires support the
interview, where do
inconsistencies occur, is this
area of need indicated by
teachers etc.
• Recommendations.
Based upon the trends
that are revealed in the
data analysis
recommendations can
be made as a guide for
future curriculum
Importance of situational analysis &
needs assessment
• is that they provide us with up to date
information which can be used to solve the
problems, set providers, identify groups which
require special need intervention and can create
a basis or platform for discussion in as far as
curriculum development is concerned,
• is that Policy makers (Government officials) and
decision makers (curriculum specialists) can make
strong arguments in as far as allocation of
resources is concerned
• A needs assessment can be a powerful tool used
to develop strategies to address the curriculum
• Eg, needs can be met and unmet needs within
the targeted groups e.g. (i) met needs may be
availability of teachers and pupils, supplementary
readers (ii) unmet may be the distance between
the school and the learners home.
• is that they will help in
the formulation of
curriculum intent,
content, selection of
learning and teaching
activities &
• It help educationalists
meet the needs and
expectations of the
• Retrieved from
• Curriculum notes, Edith Cowan University,