Provided Courtesy of Nutrition411.com Medicinal Mushrooms Review Date: 4/24/15 • This presentation provides general information about medicinal mushrooms. • Consult with your health care professional if you have any questions or need additional information, because each case is unique. What are Medicinal Mushrooms? • An ancient superfood dating back to the Egyptians and Chinese cultures used to promote health and longevity • Contain immune activating beta-glucans and other polysaccharides What are Medicinal Mushrooms? (cont’d) • Research has validated many of the purposes/uses of traditional methods • Abundant and diverse fungi represent healthful properties, namely anti-cancer and tumor, anti-bacterial, anti-viral, and immunostimulating Types of Mushrooms • Agaricus blazei • Chaga • Cordyceps • Coriolus • Mesima • Matike • Lion’s mane • Reishi • Shittake • Tremella Agaricus blazei Agaricus blazei • General o Name means “growing in the fields” o Cultivated in Japan, Korea, USA, Denmark, Holland, and Brazil o Grows well on cow manure Agaricus blazei (cont’d) • Traditional uses o Ayurvedic medicine believes it to be an aphrodisiac o Norfolk, England: Treatment for throat cancer o China: Treatment for hypertension Agaricus blazei • Medicinal uses o Contains traces of vitamins A, B1, C, K, and bioflavonoid o Helps with loss of appetite, indigestion, and insufficient breast milk secretion o Anti-bacterial o Anti-viral Chaga Inonotus obliquus Chaga • General o Can grow up to 2 kilograms or more o Grows on boreal forest birch tree Chaga (cont’d) • Traditional uses o Used as a beer flavoring o To relieve rheumatic pain o Treatment for tuberculosis, liver disease, worms, and stomach problems Chaga (cont’d) • Medicinal uses o Antioxidant due to superoxidase dismutase (SOD) activity o Inhibits tumor growth o Polysaccharides inhibit glycosidase, which may inhibit the absorption of glucose o High oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) value of 36 557 whereas the super food goji/wolfberry has 258.1 Cordyceps Cordyceps militaris Cordyceps • General o Also called “winter worm” o Grows as a parasite in caterpillars and insects When the fungi kills the insect, it creates a fruiting body Cordyceps (cont’d) • Traditional uses o Lung and kidney tonic o Alleviate cold/cough, anemia, and joint pain o Aphrodisiac and increase sperm production o Increase chi/qi o Increase red blood cell production Cordyceps (cont’d) • Medicinal uses o Broad range of anti-tumor activities o Anti-aging potential o Improvement in sexual dysfunction Cordyceps (cont’d) • Medicinal uses o Athletes: Has been seen to increase respiratory effect by removal of lactic acid Increase ATP levels Improvement of blood glucose Cordyceps (cont’d) • Things to note/caution o Do not take during pregnancy or breastfeeding due to 17- beta-estradiol o Do not take during fever Coriolus or Turkey Tail Coriolus Versicolor Coriolus • General o Turkey tail Colors of blue, brow, gray, and white Looks like the fan-like tale of the turkey Coriolus (cont’d) • Traditional uses o Night sweats associated with tuberculosis o Topical treatment for impetigo and ringworm o Relief for rheumatism, fever, arthritis, and gout o Decrease infection and inflammation of upper respiratory, urinary, and digestive tracts Coriolus (cont’d) • Medicinal uses o Krestin is a natural anti-cancer medication used in Japan that is derived from coriolus o Used along with traditional treatment such as chemo and radiation o Works directly on tumor cells, prevents metastasis, enhances effects of radiation or chemotherapy Coriolus (cont’d) • Medicinal uses o Improves function of blood vessels, o Immune enhancer o Enhances alkaline phosphatase in osteoblast cells, which suggests use in osteoporosis and degenerative bone disease Coriolus (cont’d) • Medicinal uses o Activity against hypertension, diabetes, rheumatism, thrombosis, hyperlipidemia o Anti-inflammatory actions o Leaky gut may benefit from PSK component of mushroom Matike Grifola frondosa Matike • General o Also knows as “dancing mushroom” Looks like a wild butterfly dancing on the wind o Can weigh 22-95 pounds o In Japan, the secret location of these mushrooms were only revealed to the eldest son upon death Matike (cont’d) • Traditional uses o Diuretic o Anti-pyretic o Anti-gonorrheal o Improve stomach and spleen conditions o Hemorrhoids o Help to calm mind and nervous system Matike (cont’d) • Medicinal uses o When exposed to sun, mushrooms are a good source of vitamin D o Antioxidant o Reduce hypertension, blood glucose, and cholesterol o Decrease abdominal obesity o May induce ovulation in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) Matike (cont’d) • Medicinal uses o Cox 1 and 2 inhibitory activity o Stimulate immune system in chronic fatigue syndrome Matike (cont’d) • Things to note/caution o May aggravate neuromuscular diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS) Lion’s Mane Hydnum/Hericium erinaceus Lion’s Mane • General o In Japan it is referred to as yamabushi, “those who sleep in the mountains” o Mushroom looks like a white lion’s mane hanging from a tree Lion’s Mane (cont’d) • Traditional uses o In traditional Chinese medicine it is used for digestion and gastric ulcers o Treat neurasthenia and general debility o Cuts and wounds healing Lion’s Mane (cont’d) • Medicinal uses o Inhibitory effects on cancer o Anti-fungal and anti-microbial o Treating gastric and duodenal ulcers and chronic gastritis o Helpful with chronic bronchitis o Immunodilation Reishi Ganoderma lucidum Reishi • General o “Devine or spiritual mushroom” Reishi (cont’d) • Traditional uses o Chronic hepatitis, asthma and bronchitis, nephritis, nerve pain, hypertension, gastric ulcers, insomnia o Stimulate sexual prowess and endurance o Balance endocrine and hormone levels Reishi (cont’d) • Medicinal uses o Anti-viral, anti-bacterial, anti-tumor o Stabilize antibody levels which possibly explains alleviation of food sensitivities o Prevent and aid in treatment of peptic ulcers o Decrease cholesterol, blood glucose, and hypertension Reishi (cont’d) • Medicinal uses o Calming, decreases anxiety, decreases insomnia and nervousness due to adrenal deficiency o Radiation protection o Enhanced bone marrow nucleated cell proliferation Reishi (cont’d) • Things to note/caution o Acts as a vasodilator Do not take before surgery Caution when taking an ACE inhibitor Shiitake Lentinula edodes Shiitake • General o Also called the “oak mushroom” o Grows on evergreen oak Shiitake (cont’d) • Traditional uses o Increase stamina and circulation o Alleviate arthritis, diabetes, increased cholesterol, and immune deficiency Shiitake (cont’d) • Medicinal uses o Treatment of gastric ulcers o Prevents immune system damage in women with breast cancer who have a mastectomy without radiation o Increase lymphocyte proliferation o Effective against yeast and mold Shiitake (cont’d) • Medicinal uses o When sun dried, it is a good source of vitamin D o Inhibits herpes o Inhibits HIV and increases T4 cells in AIDS patients Shiitake (cont’d) • Things to note/caution o Should be cooked prior to consumption Does not lose its medicinal benefits o Anti-clotting effects Do not take with blood thinning medication Tremella Tremella mesenterica Tremella • General o One-time belief that they were extraterrestrial or remains of a meteor from stars Tremella (cont’d) • Traditional uses o Lower total cholesterol o Moisten lungs and treat dry, nonproductive cough Tremella (cont’d) • Traditional uses o Relieve inflammation in upper respiratory tracts Soothing Demulcent Slightly expectorant Tremella (cont’d) • Medicinal uses o Lower cholesterol, triglycerides, and blood glucose o Expectorant for lungs o Immune stimulation o Radiation protection o Anti-inflammatory o Hepatoprotective Mesima Phellinus linteus Mesima • Traditional uses o Mixed with water: For a sore throat, cough, fever, diarrhea, and lung problems A “cooling” effect, to detoxify and restore internal organs Mesima (cont’d) • Traditional uses o Smoke mushroom for a sore throat o Activate blood circulation, nourish vital organs, resolve indigestion, relieve hot/inflamed tissue Mesima (cont’d) • Medicinal uses o Anti-tumor o Anti-fungal o Stimulate immune activity o Decrease metastasis of cancer o Good to add to chemotherapy and other treatments o Moderate vasorelaxing effect Mesima (cont’) • Things to note/caution o May enlarge prostate References and recommended readings George H. Medicinal mushrooms: The ancient superfood. Breakingmuscle.com website. http://breakingmuscle.com/nutrition/medicinal-mushrooms-the-ancientsuperfood. Accessed July 3, 2015. Ikekawa T. Beneficial effects of edible and medicinal mushrooms on health care. Int J Med Mushrooms. 2001;3(4):4. doi:10.1615/IntJMedMushr.v3.i4.20. Medical Mushrooms.net website. http://www.medicalmushrooms.net/. Accessed July 3, 2015. Rogers R, Wasser SP. The Fungal Pharmacy: The Complete Guide to Medicinal Mushrooms and Lichens of North America. Berkeley, CA: North Atlantic Books; 2011.