APICS Hampton Roads: 10-17-06 G. L (Jerry) Kilty, CFPIM, CIRM, CSCP 2519 McMullen Booth Road Suite 510 Q Clearwater, FL 33761 727 725-7674 QMSJerry@ij.net Quality Management Solutions, Inc. The Beer Distribution Game The Beer Distribution Game Purpose of the Game Introduce the principle that structure produces behavior Experience the pressure of playing a role in a complex system and understand the impact of collective decisions on system performance Show the impact and importance of information flow on the supply chain Quality Management Solutions, Inc. Objectives for Your Teams The Beer Distribution Game Minimize total supply chain costs -- watch your inventory levels Achieve high order fill rates -- keep your customers happy and keep their business The team with the lowest total cost wins Cost of inventory: $1.00/case/wk Out-of-stock cost: $2.00/case/wk Quality Management Solutions, Inc. The Beer Distribution Game Rules of the Game 1 Pick a team name 2 Each company fills out Record Sheets – Inventory/ Backlog and Orders 3 No communication between positions 4 Retailers -- do not reveal what customers actually order 5 Play for 50 weeks Quality Management Solutions, Inc. Overview of the Game - The Supply Chain The Beer Distribution Game Customer Retailer Wholesaler Distributor Factory Maximize customer loyalty and sales Track record of high service levels Pretty good customer service Strategy = quality and on time Back orders mean high customer dissatisfaction, loss of sales, and loss of market share One of a few select suppliers On notice: in danger of losing business if fail to achieve required fill rates Distributor cross docks so needs high service level Poor service = loss of business Quality Management Solutions, Inc. Charge-back penalties if late The Beer Distribution Game Let the Game Begin We will walk through the first few weeks slowly until you get the hang of it For the first two weeks, order four cases/wk As the facilitator calls the weeks, follow the Instruction sheet Good Luck!! Quality Management Solutions, Inc. The Beer Distribution Game About Week 8 or 9... Back orders appear Back orders are cumulative ….and explain Orders to fill = this week New orders Back orders + this week from last week Quality Management Solutions, Inc. Debriefing: Purpose of the Game The Beer Distribution Game Experience the pressures of a complex system Understand the impact that the collective results of many individual decisions can have on system performance Recognize that internal structure -- not external events -- causes system behavior Highlight the importance of coordination in an organization in meeting customer and company objectives Quality Management Solutions, Inc. Debriefing: Lesson #1 The Beer Distribution Game Even though different people working in the same structure act exercise their own free will, the qualitative patterns of behavior are the same: Oscillation -- Orders and inventories are dominated by large amplitude fluctuations, with an average period of about 20 weeks Amplification -- The amplitude and variance of orders increases steadily from customer to retailer to factory. The peak order rate at the factory is on average more than double the peak order rate at retail. Phase Lag -- The order rate tends to peak later as one moves from the retailer to the factory. Quality Management Solutions, Inc. Retailer Orders Factory Orders …And the winner is…. Quality Management Solutions, Inc. The Beer Distribution Game The Beer Distribution Game Debriefing: Lesson #1 continued The “Bullwhip Effect” in Action 20 1. Consumer Sales Order Quantity 20 2. Retailer Orders to Wholesalers Order Quantity 0 20 0 Time 3. Wholesaler Orders to Manufacturers Order Quantity 20 Time 4. Manufacturer Orders to Supplier Order Quantity 0 Time 0 Time Source: Prof. Tom Davis, “The Role of Variability in the Supply Chain” Seminar, Stanford University, Sept., 1996. Quality Management Solutions, Inc. The Forrester Effect C R E D I T C A R D 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 V A L I D F R O M G O O D T H R U X X / X X / X X X / X / X X X X / X X / X X X X / X X / X X P A U L F I S C H E R P A U L F I S C H E R Time Demand Poor communication Lack of visibility Human error Process constraints (e.g., capacity, batch sizes) • Time lags Quality Management Solutions, Inc. Demand Time Small Change in Demand IMPACT • • • • Time Time Time Increased Variability Consumer Demand Time Retailer Demand Demand Demand Distribution Demand Manufacturer Supplier Time Debriefing: Lesson #1 continued Quantity Actual Customer Orders Weeks Quality Management Solutions, Inc. The Beer Distribution Game Debriefing: Lesson #2 The Beer Distribution Game Internal Structure -- Not External Events -- Causes System Behavior Although each player was free to make his or her own decisions, the same patterns of behavior emerge in every game, demonstrating the powerful role of the system in shaping our behavior. Understanding how well-intentioned, intelligent people can create an outcome no one expected and no one wants is one of the profound lessons of the game. Quality Management Solutions, Inc. The Beer Distribution Game Group Exercise What would you do to improve the supply chain? Take 20 minutes Presentations Quality Management Solutions, Inc. The Beer Distribution Game Wrap Up Supply chain improvements….. Integrated planning and scheduling processes Demand-pull manufacturing systems Integrated supply chain (VMI, CRP, etc.) Enterprise-wide information systems Process-based organizational structure Co-location of functional departments Other? Quality Management Solutions, Inc. The Beer Distribution Game THE END Quality Management Solutions, Inc. The Beer Distribution Game THANK YOU! G. L (Jerry) Kilty, CFPIM, CIRM, CSCP 2519 McMullen Booth Road Suite 510 Q Clearwater, FL 33761 727 725-7674 QMSJerry@ij.net Quality Management Solutions, Inc.