The Nature of Services Learning Objectives Classify a service into one of four categories using the service process matrix. Describe a service using the four dimensions of the service package. Discuss the managerial implications of the distinctive characteristics of a service operation. Discuss the insights obtained from a strategic classification of services. Discuss the role of a service manager from an open-systems view of service. An Integrated Approach to Service Management The Eight Components • Product Elements • Place, Cyberspace, and Time • Promotion and Education • Price and Other User Outlays + Process + Productivity and Quality + People + Physical Evidence Require the Integration of Marketing, Operations, and Human Resources Service/Product Bundle Element Business Core Goods Example Custom clothier Core Service Example Business hotel Core Business suits Peripheral Goods Garment bag Room for the night Bath robe Peripheral Service Variant Deferred payment plans In house restaurant Coffee lounge Airport shuttle The Service Process Matrix Degree Degree of Interaction and Customization of labor Intensity Low High Low High Service factory: * Airlines * Trucking * Hotels * Resorts and recreation Service shop: * Hospitals * Auto repair * Other repair services Mass service: * Retailing * Wholesaling * Schools * Retail aspects of commercial banking Professional service: * Doctors * Lawyers * Accountants * Architects The Service Package Supporting Facility: The physical resources that must be in place before a service can be sold. Examples are golf course, ski lift, hospital, airplane. Facilitating Goods: The material consumed by the buyer or items provided by the consumer. Examples are food items, legal documents, golf clubs, medical history. Information: Operations data or information that is provided by the customer to enable efficient and customized service. Examples are patient medical records, seats available on a flight, customer preferences, location of customer to dispatch a taxi. The Service Package (cont.) Explicit Services: Benefits readily observable by the senses. The essential or intrinsic features. Examples are quality of meal, attitude of the waiter, on-time departure. Implicit Services: Psychological benefits or extrinsic features which the consumer may sense only vaguely. Examples are privacy of loan office, security of a well lighted parking lot. Distinctive Characteristics of Services Customer Participation in the Service Process: attention to facility design but opportunities for coproduction Simultaneity: opportunities for personal selling, interaction creates customer perceptions of quality Perishability: cannot inventory, opportunity loss of idle capacity, need to match supply with demand Intangibility: creative advertising, no patent protection, importance of reputation Heterogeneity: customer participation in delivery process results in variability Strategic Service Classification (Nature of the Service Act) Direct Recipient of the Service Nature of the Service Act Tangible actions People People’s bodies: Health care Passenger transportation Beauty salons Exercise clinics Restaurants People’s minds: Intangible actions Education Broadcasting Information services Theaters Museums Things Physical possessions: Freight transportation Repair and maintenance Veterinary care Janitorial services Laundry and dry cleaning Intangible assets: Banking Legal services Accounting Securities Insurance Strategic Service Classification (Relationship with Customers) Type of Relationship between Service Organization and Its Customers Nature of Service Delivery “Membership” relationship No formal relationship Continuous delivery of service Discrete transactions Insurance Telephone subscription Electric Utility Radio station Police protection Lighthouse Banking Public Highway Long-distance phone calls Theater series tickets Transit pass Sam’s Wholesale Club Airline frequent flyer Restaurant Pay phone Toll highway Movie theater Public transportation Strategic Service Classification (Customization and Judgment) Extent to Which Service Characteristics Are Customized Extent to Which Personnel Exercise Judgment in Meeting Customer Needs High Low High Low Surgery Preventive health programs Taxi services Gourmet restaurant Education (large classes) Family restaurant Telephone service Hotel services Public transportation Spectator sports Retail banking Cafeteria Movie theater Institutional food service Strategic Service Classification (Nature of Demand and Supply) Extent of Demand Fluctuation over Time Extent to which Supply Is Constrained Peak demand can usually be met without a major delay Peak demand regularly exceeds capacity Wide Narrow Electricity Insurance Telephone Legal services Police emergency Banking Hospital maternity unit Laundry and dry cleaning Tax preparation Fast food restaurant Passenger transportation Movie theater Hotels and motels Gas station Strategic Service Classification (Method of Service Delivery) Availability of Service Outlets Nature of Interaction between Customer and Service Organization Customer travels to service organization Service provider travels to customer Transaction is at arm’s length Single site Multiple site Theater Bus service Barbershop Fast-food chain Taxi Mail delivery Pest control service Taxi AAA emergency repairs Credit card company Broadcast network Local TV station Telephone company Open Systems View of Services Service Process Consumer arrivals (input) Consumer participant Consumer-Provider interface Control Customer demand Perceived needs Location Consumer Evaluation departures ( output) Criteria Measurement Monitor Service operations manager Production function: Alter Monitor and control process Schedule demand Marketing function: supply Interact with consumers Control demand Modify as necessary Define standard Communicate by advertising Service package Supporting facility Facilitating goods Explicit services Implicit services Basis of selection Service personnel Empowerment Training Attitudes Village Volvo’s Service Package Supporting Facility Facilitating Goods Information Explicit Services Implicit Services Village Volvo’s Distinctive Service Characteristics Intangibility Perishability Heterogeneity Simultaneity Customer Participation in the Service Process Village Volvo’s Service Classification Nature of the service act Relationship with customers Customization and judgement Nature of demand and supply Method of service delivery Managing Village Volvo How could Village Volvo manage its back office (repair operations) like a factory? How can Village Volvo differentiate itself from Volvo dealers? Xpresso Lube Facility Xpresso Lube’s Service Package Supporting Facility Facilitating Goods Information Explicit Services Implicit Services Xpresso Lube’s Distinctive Service Characteristics Intangibility Perishability Heterogeneity Simultaneity Customer Participation in the Service Process Xpresso Lube’s Service Classification Nature of the service act Relationship with customers Customization and judgement Nature of demand and supply Method of service delivery Beyond Xpresso Lube What elements of Xpresso Lube’s location contribute to its success? Given the example of Xpresso Lube, what other services could be combined to “add value” for the customer? Topics for Discussion What are the characteristics of services that will be most appropriate for Internet delivery? When does collecting information through service membership become an invasion of privacy? What are some management problems associated with allowing service employees to exercise judgement in meeting customer needs? What factors are important for a manager to consider when attempting to enhance a service firm’s image? What contributions to the management of professional service firms can a business school graduate provide? Interactive Class Exercise The class breaks into five groups and each group is assigned one of the service classifications (e.g., nature of act, relationship with customer, customization, nature of demand, or method of delivery) to come up with an example for each of the four quadrants in the matrix.