Z13: Project Management - UCL Computer Science

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UCL/APM Principles of Project Management
The Project Environment
and Life-Cycle
Graham Collins
University College London (UCL)
[email protected]
Outline of evening
6.30- 6.50
Welcome/Introduction
Student prize award
6.50 -7.20
UCL lecture
7.20- 7.30
Break
7.30- 8.10
Guest Lecture
Dr Charles Willbe
Questions
8.10- 8.20
Outline of sessions
The Project Environment and Life-Cycle
Why projects fail
Risk Management
Work Content and Scope Management
Business Case
Scheduling (including exercise)
Change Control and Earned Value
Communications (including the Project
Management Plan)
Motivation and Team Building
Project Evaluation
Goals
One never goes as far when one
doesn’t know where one is going
Goethe
Operations and projects – some examples
Operations
Projects
Order processing and
Develop new products –
Invoicing – Ford/Mazda
Apple iPod Shuffle
Manufacture products –
Toyota- efficient
production operations,
Just in Time (JIT)
Advertising campaigns –
Saatchi and Saatchi –
Sagatiba (a drink)
Stock management –
Supermarket retail,
example Sainsbury’s
(operation criticised by
Computing)
Médecins Sans Frontières
– medical aid –
Tsunami
Operations and Projects
Operations
Projects
Task
Familiar
Unfamiliar
Staff
Designated
Diverse
Roles
Established
Uncertain
Culture
Role
Task
Working relationships
Established
Negotiable
Authority
Clear
Ambiguous
Co-ordination
Hierarchical
Network/Matrix
Information sources
Routine
Uncertain
Learning
Desirable
Essential
Momentum
Maintained by system
Threatened by system
Time Horizon
Long term
Finite
Definition of a project
‘A unique set of co-ordinated activities, with
definitive starting and finishing points,
undertaken by an individual or organisation to
meet specific objectives within defined
schedule, cost and product performance
parameters,
BS 6079 – Guide to Project Management
Introduce beneficial change
Project management is regarded as the most efficient way
to introduce beneficial change
Defining what has to be accomplished, generally in terms of time cost and
various technical and quality parameters.
Developing a plan and working through this ensuring progress is maintained.
Using appropriate project management techniques
and tools to plan, monitor and maintain progress.
Employing skilled project management staff,
including a project manager who are given responsibility for
introducing the change and are accountable for the
successful implementation.
Based on Project Management pathways edited by Stevens, M. APM, 2002
Change Management
- creating the right conditions for project management
Change Step
Purpose / Outcome
Diagnose
What is the problem or opportunity?
Align
Ensure stakeholders understand the
necessity
Prepare
Design a workable approach
Commit
Seek active stakeholder involvement and
secure a champion
Mobilise
Early wins to gain commitment and
confidence
Enable
Commission enabling changes that lay the
foundation for major changes later
Action
Implement the change and ensure
benefits
Measure
Ensure measurement and review
processes are in place
Institutionalise
Ensure sustainability and improvement
Roles and Responsibilities - Project Sponsor

Appoint project manager
 Ensuring the project is and continues to
be a viable proposition and is aligned to
corporate objectives
 Signing off / accepting the outputs of the
project
 Resolving issues outside the mandate of
the project manager
 Chairing the Project Board or Steering
Committee.
Roles and Responsibilities – Project Manager





Benefit focused
Build in quality
Manage risks and issues
Exploiting enablers and removing blockers
Exploiting resources available
Key responsibilities:
 Provide single point of responsibility
 Define and plan the project
 Create the temporary organisation (lead the project team)
 Manage stakeholders
 Monitor and control all aspects including risk,
opportunities, issues, scope change, benefits etc.
 Ensure project objectives are delivered on time, to
specified cost and quality
 Manage the hand-over and close down the project.
Challenges

Securing resources
 Insufficient authority
 Conflict of organisational priorities
 Cannot rely on communication flows
 Cannot rely on people knowing what is
required.
Fundamental steps in Project Management

Define the project
 Design the project
 Develop / build the solution
 Test the solution
 Implement the solution
 Review the project
 Close the project.
Project Support Office

Maintain documentation
 Facilitate the control process
 Update information / communication
systems
 Issue progress reports
 Configuration control
 May undertake procurement
Project Life-Cycle
Life Cycle phases, from APM Project
Management Book of Knowledge
Opportunity
Identification
Concept/
Marketing
Design &
Development
Design,
Modelling and
Procurement
Implement
Make,
Build and
Test
Handover
Test,
Commission,
Start-up
Operation
Operation and
Maintenance /
Integrated Logistics
Phases can be planned and controlled as smaller projects
Phases have
- inputs, processes and outputs
- key activities and milestones
Usually need to sign-off to move from one phase to the next
Some projects use concurrent processes, where phases overlap.
Project Management – Definition
‘Planning, monitoring and control of all aspects
of a project and the motivation of all those
involved in it to achieve the project objectives
on time and to the specified cost, quality and
performance.’
British Standard 6079 -1: 2000
Programme Management - Definition
‘Programme Management is the co-ordinated
management of a portfolio of projects that change
organisations to achieve benefits that are of
strategic importance’
Managing Successful Programmes, OGC, The Stationary
Office 1999
Programme Management - Benefits

Reduction of risk,
 efficient use
 and coordination of resources
 Prioritisation
to achieve corporate goals.
The Project Environment
-the context within the
project exists
Political
Environmental
Distributors
Contractors
Clients
The
The
project
project
Legal
End users
PESTLE
Economic
Organisation
Suppliers
Technological
Social-cultural
Kind permission
from Jane Walker
UCL.
This slide and the
next 4 are from
UCL MAST project
management
courses 2004
Stakeholders
Press/Media
Shareholders
Government
Professional bodies
Senior management
Regulators
Internal
users
Staff
Clients
End-users
Unions
Contractors
Project Manager
Managers
controlling internal
resources
Distributors
Colleagues
Suppliers
Pressure groups
Stakeholder Analysis

Who are they
 Their objectives
 Past reactions
 Positive / negative impact of project
 Possible future reaction
 Power / interest in the project
 Actions to gain / maintain support
Stakeholder mapping
High
Level of power
& influence
.X
.Y
.Z
Low
Low
Blocker
Level of support
Undecided
High
Champion
Stakeholder management

Projects exist in the wider context
 Critical influences may vary by type of
project
 Recognise that groups can influence the
project
 Plan and manage their support:
- understand their needs
- communicate, negotiate, persuade.
Book Slot
The Definitive Guide to Project Management
Sebastian Noakes et al
FT Prentice Hall
2003
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