Hazards To Your Lungs From Grain Dust And Mold Inhalation Presenter: Kasey Lindsey, MUSN, Maryville University School of Nursing-St. Louis, Missouri Advising Faculty: Mary Curtis, RN, Ph.D. Clinical Instructor Maryville University School of Nursing-St. Louis Missouri Karen Funkenbusch, MA Clinical Mentor College of Agriculture, Food and Natural Resources University of Missouri-Columbia Normal Respiratory Anatomy • The normal Respiratory system is made up of a number of things. These are essentially the Main components – – – – – – The Nasal Cavity The Oral Cavity The Larynx The Trachea or “Windpipe” The Bronchial Tree The Lungs The Anatomy Of Your Respiratory System Normal Respiratory Function • Air enters the respiratory tract through the Nasal and Oral Cavities, where it is filtered through cilia. It is also warmed as it passes through here. • The air then travels through the larynx which connects the oral and nasal cavities to the Trachea. Normal Lung Function • The air continues to move through the Trachea and into the Bronchial Tree. • The Bronchial Tree branches off into the different lobes of the lung and it is here that the air goes into the lungs and eventually into the blood stream. • The Lungs are composed of tiny sacs called ALVEOLI. This is where gas exchange takes place with miniscule blood vessels. The Alveoli When air enters your lungs, it goes through a maze of smaller and smaller tubes until it reaches tiny sacs called alveoli. The sacs look like bunches of grapes at the end of the bronchial tubes. The alveoli are where the oxygen from the air enters your blood, and the carbon dioxide from your body goes into the air. Alveoli are very tiny, but you have a lot of them in your lungs. In fact, you have 300,000,000 alveoli in each lung. That's six hundred million in total - and your body needs them all to get enough oxygen into your blood! Normal Lung Function • The large number of Alveoli in the lungs increases the surface area for gas exchange to occur. So Why Should You Be Concerned About Inhaling Grain Dust and Mold? • Destruction of different components of the Respiratory System occur when these substances are inhaled. • Depending on the type of destruction and your immune system response, you may be experiencing a lung condition and in many cases this leads to long term disease. Types of Respiratory Conditions or Diseases Related to Grain Dust and Mold Inhalation • Farmer’s Lung or Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis • Toxic Organic Dust Syndrome (TODS) Farmer’s Lung • Farmer’s lung is an allergic reaction that occurs because the mold and dust is so fine it gets past the defense systems of of the nose, mouth and throat. • Normally, the defenses inside the lungs will attack the dust and remove it without damage. Farmer’s Lung • Unfortunately for some who’s immune system is more sensitive, an allergy will develop. • Consequently, repeated exposure will ultimately lead to allergic reactions in which the immune system kicks in and works against the dust. Farmer’s Lung • Once you become vulnerable to the allergy, repeated exposure then leads to the formation of scar tissue. • This destructs the walls of the alveoli sacs and decreases area for air to be exchanged. So long term effects are definite. Symptoms of Farmer’s Lung With the first exposure you may only experience a slight cough. Symptoms following later exposures may include: – – – – – Feeling of hot and cold Fever Profuse sweating Noticeable weakness A chronic cough or other persistent cold/flu – like symptoms – Breathlessness,wheezing or chest tightness – A general feeling of tiredness or depression Toxic Organic Dust Syndrome (TODS) • TODS is an allergic reaction like Farmer’s Lung. • Severity of the reaction does not increase with subsequent exposures however. • Instead, the severity depends on the amount of dust inhaled and the individuals own immune response. • This condition affects anyone who is exposed, not just those who are sensitive. Symptoms of TODS • • • • • Cough Fever Chills Body Aches Fatigue Long Term Effects of These Conditions • Repeated exposure in both cases leads to scar tissue formation and alveolar destruction. • This causes decreased lung function similar to Emphysema. How Can You Protect Yourself? • If you are or have become extremely sensitive, the best prevention is to avoid the triggers (Dust and Mold) • For others, the use of masks and respirators, when used properly offer the best protection. MASKS/RESPIRATORS • Most masks used for the purpose of filtering dust and mold are called AirPurifying Respirators. – There are two general types: • Mechanical Filter Respirator • Chemical Cartridge Respirator Mechanical Filters Disposable Half Mask Respirator • Uses: Grain Dust and Mold • Fit: Good Fit Hard to Obtain • Maintenance: Low, adjustable tow strap models available • Breathing Resistance: High, however models are available with and exhalation valve • When to Discard: When more effort is needed to draw in air. This happens because the filter has become clogged with trapped particles. • Uses: Grain Dust and Mold • Fit: Moderately Good • Maintenance: Moderate due to changing filters • Breathing Resistance: Moderate • When to Discard: These are reusable, but the dust filters must be replaced and should be when more effort is needed to draw in air. Particulate Respirator N95 respirator combines fit, comfort and protection better than any other N95 respirator Are you having trouble getting your one-size disposable mask to fit properly? Are you finding your "dust/mist" respirator difficult to breathe through? Then try the new GEMPLER'S N95 "dust/mist" respirator, which comes in three sizes (small, medium, large). Our respirator's combination "boomerang" nose cushion and formable nose band help you achieve a better seal over the bridge of your nose, which is often where respirators allow contaminants in or why they cause your glasses to fog. This respirator has an exhalation valve to allow hot, moist air to escape, keeping you and your workers cooler. Each size face piece has its own color-coded nose band for easy identification. NIOSH approved to trap 95% of non-oil particulates. NIOSH Approval No. TC-84A-1090. Size Medium fits 70% of men. Box of 10. The 8214 has a Cool Flow exhalation valve that makes breathing easier and cooler while doing hot welding or torch work. Advanced Electrets filter media resists caking, allows for easier breathing and has a layer of carbon to trap nuisance odors. Adjustable straps and comfortable face seal. 95% filter efficiency against particulate contaminants free of oil Not to be used when welding toxic metals such as cadmium and lead. Box of 10. NIOSH Approval No. TC-84A0454. Qty Price 1- 5 $66.50 6 + $59.95 Chemical Cartridge Respirators • Uses: Dusts and Gases – When going to be in contact with dusts and chemical vapors, this is the best choice. • Filtering Material: Activated Carbon • Maintenance: Moderate due to filter changes • Breathing Resistance: Moderate NIOSH approved for use against ammonia gas. For use in the transportation and application of ammonia and in hog and poultry confinement operations. Comfortable silicone face piece. Approval No. TC-23C-861. Order pre-filters and filter retainers separately. Cartridges are not replaceable. This is a disposable respirator.(Goggles not included). Small size fits ladies and young adults. Price: $20.35 Powered Air Purifiers • Can be a mechanical filter, chemical cartridge respirator, or a combination of both. • Uses: Dusts (Grain and Mold) and Gases • Maintenance: Moderate to High • Breathing Resistance: Low, because this particular respirator has a motor that forces air into the breathing zone of the wearer – no effort is needed to draw air in through the filter. Powered Air Purifiers • This device consists usually of a hard helmet and a rigid face mask, however non rigid materials are available. • These are powered by a battery pack strapped to users back. • Considerable weight is expected with these due to the added equipment. • A good fit or tight seal is not required because of the constant positive air pressure. •12-volt powered helmet provides protection against pesticides Qty Price 1 – 2 $447.35 3 + $411.55 •NIOSH approved •This low-cost, lightweight KASCO powered air-purifying helmet is perfect for someone who sprays in orchards or on tractors not equipped with cabs. Battery recharging and maintenance hassles are eliminated because power is provided by your tractor's 12volt electrical system. •Air is drawn through two organic vapor/HEPA filters at a rate of 6.4 cfm. The polyurethane-coated fiberglass helmet features a flip-up visor and adjustable headband. NIOSH Approval No. TC-23C-1562. System comes complete with helmet, 6-foot power cord, power socket, two pesticide filters, instruction manual and breathing tube. Imported. Remarks • Except for the Powered Air Purifier, A good fit and seal around the nose and mouth is necessary for the respirator to be EFFECTIVE. • Whatever respirator you choose should be NIOSH Approved, so look for that when purchasing your respirator. Where Should You Go To Find Your Respirator?? • Most Farm Supply Stores or Home Improvement Retailers carry respirators and Masks. – Examples include • Orscheln Stores • Lowe’s and Home Depot • True Value Stores ALL EXAMPLES IN THIS PRESENTATION WERE PROVIDED BY GEMPLERS, INC.