Power Point File - Missouri AgrAbility Project

Hazards To Your Lungs From
Grain Dust And Mold Inhalation
Kasey Lindsey, MUSN,
Maryville University School of
Nursing-St. Louis, Missouri
Advising Faculty:
Mary Curtis, RN, Ph.D.
Clinical Instructor
Maryville University School of Nursing-St. Louis
Karen Funkenbusch, MA
Clinical Mentor
College of Agriculture, Food and Natural Resources
University of Missouri-Columbia
Normal Respiratory Anatomy
• The normal Respiratory system is made up of
a number of things. These are essentially
the Main components
The Nasal Cavity
The Oral Cavity
The Larynx
The Trachea or “Windpipe”
The Bronchial Tree
The Lungs
The Anatomy Of Your Respiratory System
Normal Respiratory Function
• Air enters the respiratory tract through
the Nasal and Oral Cavities, where it is
filtered through cilia. It is also
warmed as it passes through here.
• The air then travels through the larynx
which connects the oral and nasal
cavities to the Trachea.
Normal Lung Function
• The air continues to move through the
Trachea and into the Bronchial Tree.
• The Bronchial Tree branches off into the
different lobes of the lung and it is here that
the air goes into the lungs and eventually
into the blood stream.
• The Lungs are composed of tiny sacs called
ALVEOLI. This is where gas exchange takes
place with miniscule blood vessels.
The Alveoli
When air enters your lungs, it goes through a maze of smaller and smaller
tubes until it reaches tiny sacs called alveoli. The sacs look like bunches of
grapes at the end of the bronchial tubes. The alveoli are where the oxygen
from the air enters your blood, and the carbon dioxide from your body goes
into the air. Alveoli are very tiny, but you have a lot of them in your lungs. In
fact, you have 300,000,000 alveoli in each lung. That's six hundred million
in total - and your body needs them all to get enough oxygen into your
Normal Lung Function
• The large number of Alveoli in the
lungs increases the surface area for gas
exchange to occur.
So Why Should You Be
Concerned About Inhaling Grain
Dust and Mold?
• Destruction of different components of
the Respiratory System occur when
these substances are inhaled.
• Depending on the type of destruction
and your immune system response, you
may be experiencing a lung condition
and in many cases this leads to long
term disease.
Types of Respiratory Conditions or
Diseases Related to Grain Dust and
Mold Inhalation
• Farmer’s Lung or Hypersensitivity
• Toxic Organic Dust Syndrome (TODS)
Farmer’s Lung
• Farmer’s lung is an allergic reaction
that occurs because the mold and dust
is so fine it gets past the defense
systems of of the nose, mouth and
• Normally, the defenses inside the lungs
will attack the dust and remove it
without damage.
Farmer’s Lung
• Unfortunately for some who’s immune
system is more sensitive, an allergy
will develop.
• Consequently, repeated exposure will
ultimately lead to allergic reactions in
which the immune system kicks in and
works against the dust.
Farmer’s Lung
• Once you become vulnerable to the
allergy, repeated exposure then leads
to the formation of scar tissue.
• This destructs the walls of the alveoli
sacs and decreases area for air to be
exchanged. So long term effects are
Symptoms of Farmer’s Lung
With the first exposure you may only experience a
slight cough. Symptoms following later
exposures may include:
Feeling of hot and cold
Profuse sweating
Noticeable weakness
A chronic cough or other
persistent cold/flu – like
– Breathlessness,wheezing
or chest tightness
– A general feeling of
tiredness or depression
Toxic Organic Dust
Syndrome (TODS)
• TODS is an allergic reaction like Farmer’s
• Severity of the reaction does not increase
with subsequent exposures however.
• Instead, the severity depends on the amount
of dust inhaled and the individuals own
immune response.
• This condition affects anyone who is
exposed, not just those who are sensitive.
Symptoms of TODS
Body Aches
Long Term Effects of These
• Repeated exposure in both cases leads
to scar tissue formation and alveolar
• This causes decreased lung function
similar to Emphysema.
How Can You Protect
• If you are or have become extremely
sensitive, the best prevention is to
avoid the triggers (Dust and Mold)
• For others, the use of masks and
respirators, when used properly offer
the best protection.
• Most masks used for the purpose of
filtering dust and mold are called AirPurifying Respirators.
– There are two general types:
• Mechanical Filter Respirator
• Chemical Cartridge Respirator
Mechanical Filters
Half Mask Respirator
• Uses: Grain Dust and Mold
• Fit: Good Fit Hard to Obtain
• Maintenance: Low, adjustable
tow strap models available
• Breathing Resistance: High,
however models are available
with and exhalation valve
• When to Discard: When more
effort is needed to draw in air.
This happens because the filter
has become clogged with
trapped particles.
• Uses: Grain Dust and Mold
• Fit: Moderately Good
• Maintenance: Moderate due to
changing filters
• Breathing Resistance:
• When to Discard: These are
reusable, but the dust filters
must be replaced and should be
when more effort is needed to
draw in air.
Particulate Respirator
N95 respirator combines fit, comfort and
protection better than any other N95
respirator Are you having trouble getting
your one-size disposable mask to fit properly?
Are you finding your "dust/mist" respirator
difficult to breathe through? Then try the new
GEMPLER'S N95 "dust/mist" respirator,
which comes in three sizes (small, medium,
large). Our respirator's combination
"boomerang" nose cushion and formable nose
band help you achieve a better seal over the
bridge of your nose, which is often where
respirators allow contaminants in or why they
cause your glasses to fog. This respirator has
an exhalation valve to allow hot, moist air to
escape, keeping you and your workers cooler.
Each size face piece has its own color-coded
nose band for easy identification. NIOSH
approved to trap 95% of non-oil particulates.
NIOSH Approval No. TC-84A-1090. Size
Medium fits 70% of men. Box of 10.
The 8214 has a Cool Flow
exhalation valve that makes
breathing easier and cooler
while doing hot welding or
torch work. Advanced
Electrets filter media resists
caking, allows for easier
breathing and has a layer of
carbon to trap nuisance
odors. Adjustable straps
and comfortable face seal.
95% filter efficiency against
particulate contaminants
free of oil Not to be used
when welding toxic metals
such as cadmium and lead.
Box of 10. NIOSH
Approval No. TC-84A0454.
1- 5 $66.50
6 + $59.95
Chemical Cartridge
• Uses: Dusts and Gases
– When going to be in contact with dusts
and chemical vapors, this is the best
• Filtering Material: Activated Carbon
• Maintenance: Moderate due to filter
• Breathing Resistance: Moderate
NIOSH approved for use against
ammonia gas. For use in the
transportation and application of
ammonia and in hog and poultry
confinement operations.
Comfortable silicone face piece.
Approval No. TC-23C-861. Order
pre-filters and filter retainers
separately. Cartridges are not
replaceable. This is a disposable
respirator.(Goggles not included).
Small size fits ladies and young
Price: $20.35
Powered Air Purifiers
• Can be a mechanical filter, chemical
cartridge respirator, or a combination of
• Uses: Dusts (Grain and Mold) and Gases
• Maintenance: Moderate to High
• Breathing Resistance: Low, because this
particular respirator has a motor that forces
air into the breathing zone of the wearer –
no effort is needed to draw air in through
the filter.
Powered Air Purifiers
• This device consists usually of a hard helmet
and a rigid face mask, however non rigid
materials are available.
• These are powered by a battery pack
strapped to users back.
• Considerable weight is expected with these
due to the added equipment.
• A good fit or tight seal is not required
because of the constant positive air
•12-volt powered helmet
provides protection against
1 – 2 $447.35
3 + $411.55
•NIOSH approved
•This low-cost, lightweight
KASCO powered air-purifying
helmet is perfect for someone
who sprays in orchards or on
tractors not equipped with cabs.
Battery recharging and
maintenance hassles are
eliminated because power is
provided by your tractor's 12volt electrical system.
•Air is drawn through two
organic vapor/HEPA filters at a
rate of 6.4 cfm. The
polyurethane-coated fiberglass
helmet features a flip-up visor
and adjustable headband. NIOSH
Approval No. TC-23C-1562.
System comes complete with
helmet, 6-foot power cord,
power socket, two pesticide
filters, instruction manual and
breathing tube. Imported.
• Except for the Powered Air Purifier, A
good fit and seal around the nose and
mouth is necessary for the respirator
• Whatever respirator you choose should
be NIOSH Approved, so look for that
when purchasing your respirator.
Where Should You Go To
Find Your Respirator??
• Most Farm Supply Stores or Home
Improvement Retailers carry
respirators and Masks.
– Examples include
• Orscheln Stores
• Lowe’s and Home Depot
• True Value Stores