• A group of people related by ______, blood, or _______.
• The family we’re _______ is our family of orientation. It provides children w/ a name, identity, + a heritage. It directs (orients) a child into their community + society. It also gives them an ______________ in the community.
• The family of procreation is established by __________.
Marriage is a ______________ based on mutual rights + obligations.
• The family of procreation becomes the family of orientation for the ________________ from the marriage.
• The nuclear family is a family structure compose of one or both _____________________.
• The extended family consists of 2 or more _______
____________ of the same family whose members share
includes grandparents, aunts/uncles, cousins, etc…
• Patterns of family structure
• Patterns of behavior w/in a family relate to _________, authority, + place of ___________.
• Who inherits?
• Patrilineal: descent + inheritance are passed from the ________ to his male descendants.
• Matrilineal: descent + inheritance are passed from the ________ to her female descendants.
• Bilateral: descent + inheritance are passed equally through ________________.
• Who is in authority?
• Patriarchy: the ________ living in the household has authority over the rest of the family.
• Matriarchy: the ____________ living in the household has authority over the rest of the family.
• Equalitarian: authority is ________ b/w husband
• Where to couples live?
• Patrilocal: Lives w/ or near the _______ parents.
• Matrilocal: Lives w/ or near the ______ parents.
• Neolocal: Establishes a residence of _________.
• Marriage arrangements they are all a ritual designed to communicate that a _____________________ + that any children born to them can legitimately inherit the family __________________.
• Monogamy is the marriage of one man to one woman (although increasingly this can include a monogamous gay/lesbian couple). This is the _________________ form of marriage in the world today.
• Polygamy is the marriage of a male or female to _____________________ at a time.
• Polygyny is the marriage of one man to
2 or more women at the same time.
• Rare, occurs legally in parts of
Africa, India, + the _________.
• Polyandry is the marriage of one woman to 2 or more men at the same time.
• Men are usually ________.
• Only known to have been common in 3 societies – Tibet, Polynesia,
+ the hill peoples of India.
• Choosing a mate
• All cultures have norms + laws about who may _________ whom.
• Exogamy refers to the mate-selection norms requiring individuals to marry someone ________________ or group
(Exo means “________”).
• If by ______________ + not a social norm other terms are used:
• Homogamy refers to the tendency to marry someone _____ to oneself.
• Ex. The incest taboo is a norm forbidding marriage b/w close relatives. What qualifies as incest ____ from one society to another.
• Endogamy refers to the mate-selection norms requiring individuals to marry someone w/in their own kind (Endo means “________”).
• Ex. Norms + laws requiring someone to marry w/in their own race, though these norms are becoming
• Ex. Same race, religion, socioeconomic status, etc…
• More common
• Heterogamy refers to a marriage b/w people w/ ________ social characteristics.
• Ex. Different race, religion, socioeconomic status, etc…
• ____________, but due to more integration + media exposure.
End Section 1
• Sociological views of the family
• Functionalism: Focuses on the ______ provided by families.
• Provides socioemotional maintenance
(providing acceptance + ________). W/o this, children would not develop normally – may develop low self-esteem, inability to express emotions, etc…
• Provides an orderly means for ________
• Regulates _____________ – all societies have rules + norms governing sexual behaviors (incest, age limits, etc…) which are usually enforced by the family
• Transmits _______________ – provides economic resources to enter desired occupations as well as the values common in each social status
• Provides ________________ – they take care of what is needed to survive.
• Conflict Theory: Focuses on ______________.
B/c most family structures throughout history have been patriarchal + patrilineal, women have been considered the _____________. So most families have a built-in gender inequality.
Traditionally women provide free cooking, cleaning, + child-rearing, making it possible for men to work outside the home for wages + thus controlling the family finances. Women are kept dependent + ____________.
• Symbolic Interactionism: Focuses on _______
____________ + they contribute to children’s socialization + development of a self-concept.
Our 1 st interactions are w/ our family + these interactions help children acquire _________ + social characteristics. These relationships are
_________________ (ex. w/ marriage, having children, divorce, retirement, etc…).
End Section 2
• The nature of the American family
• Although there are many ________ most families in America (no matter of what race or ethnicity) have the following characteristics:
• Nuclear (only one set of parents + children in a single home).
• __________ (partners share in the decision making)
• Marriage • The marriage rate is the # of marriages per yr for every thousand members of the population.
• Why do people marry?
• To enter a _________________
• Advance a _________
• Conformity/pressure from family
+/or friends (over ___% of people in
America get married)
• Partners chosen will be based on attributes such as class/caste, wealth, family reputation, appearance, etc…
• The divorce rate is the # of divorces per yr for every thousand members of the population.
• Causes of divorce at the individual level include:
• The _____ of people when they get married (the it is, the less likely they are to get divorced).
• How many yrs the couple has been
________ (the it is, the less likely they are to get divorced).
• The nature + quality of the relationship. The more _________ + flexibility that exists b/w the partners the the chance of divorce
(YES, you need to know these!)
• About ½ of marriages end in divorce.
• Success or failure of a marriage basically stems from 2 things:
1. How often they share intimate +
2. How couples handle __________.
• Happy couples argue, but they:
- _______ to each other.
- Focus on SOLVING THE
- Show _________.
• Causes of divorce at the ______________ include:
• _______________ (people are more likely to get divorced when times are good + less likely when times are bad – probably b/c they’re more willing to take chances in good times, or can
• _________________ about divorce.
Americans are less likely to
_________ people who get divorced.
• The ____________________ of women – no longer have to stay w/ a male provider.
• Domestic violence
• Early research on domestic violence made it appear limited mostly to _____________. This research was distorted b/c it came from ____ + public hospital records (wealthier people are more likely to avoid the police + go to private hospitals).
• Almost ¼ of adults in the US report having been physically abused as _______. Abuse includes a slap, shove, kicking, punching, biting, severe spanking, or threatening w/ a weapon.
• Estimates are that ¼ girls + 1/10 boys are victims of ________________ (in the home or outside).
• At least 4 million women are beaten by their husbands each yr. This # is _______________ partly b/c ¾ of spousal abuse takes place when a couple is _________ + most research is done on married couples.
• ______________ is much more common than most people realize. Physical violence against husbands is almost equal to that against wives;
HOWEVER, much of the violence committed by women involves ____________________
• Verbal + psychological abuse, like neglect, are also problems.
• ____________ seems to be the most common form of domestic violence.
• ___________ hasn’t been studied long, but is expected to as people begin living longer.
End Section 3
• Types of families
• Today, the “__________” American family
(working dad, homemaker mom, + 2 kids) accounts for ___________ of all American families – compared to over 60% in 1950.
• Current families are increasingly likely to be:
• _________ families
• Single-parent families
• __________ marriages
• Dual-employed marriages
• Same-sex domestic partners
• __________ only
• Have boomerang kids
• Blended families
• A family formed when at least one of the partners in a marriage has a child or children from a ______
• About ____% of households in the US contain biologically unrelated individuals (besides the married couple).
• Half-siblings are brothers or sisters who share
EITHER the same ________________________.
• Step-siblings are related by marriage of one of each of their parents, + have no __________________.
• Major problems facing blended families:
1. _________ – often have to pay alimony +/or child support.
2. ____________________ – may resent new marriage + new siblings
3. ____________ – Power struggles may occur b/w stepparents + stepchildren, especially if children are teenagers.
• Single-parent families
• Over _____ of American families is a single-parent family.
• Only 10% of these children live in a ___________ household. Why?
• Women in all social classes are still more likely to ______________ of their children
(although this has been ).
#s come from the 2010 Census
• Unwed mothers + mothers ___________ by their children’s fathers make up a large part of poor single-parent households + these women marry/remarry at a ____________.
• Although much fewer, an # of _______
__________________ women head singleparent households by choosing to have a child alone. This is largely due to the single parent stigma .
• Adolescents (youths 12-17 yrs old) in single-parent families or w/ step-parents are more likely to have
_________________, often due to single parents’ lack of time +/or $.
• Childless marriages
• In the past, married women w/o kids were pitied + _______________. Today, more married women are choosing not to have kids. Why?
• stigma about being _________
• To pursue personal +/or career goals
• Wait too long + ____________
• Incapable of having kids
• Are these marriages happier than those w/ kids?
• Typically, if the couple wants kids, but can’t have them, they’re _____ happy. If they chose not to have kids, than they’re usually ________.
• Dual-employed marriages
• Marriages in which both spouses work outside the home.
• __________ for kids
• Often places a disproportionate amount of work/stress/guilt on the _______
• Women still typically do more of the household + child-raising duties
• Some men may feel conflicted if their wife
_____________ than they do.
• Greater feelings of control, independence,
+ self-esteem for ________ who choose to work.
• Men don’t have the stress of being the
• Happier wives means happier husbands
• Cohabitation • Living w/ someone in a _______________ arrangement w/o the _______________ + responsibilities of a formal marriage.
• # has been
• Only about ¼ cohabitating couples stay together more than _______
• If they do marry, they tend to be less satisfied in that marriage + more likely to
• Same-sex domestic partners or marriages
• B/c there is still a stigma attached to homosexuality, it’s impossible to know how many Americans are gay. The # has been estimated to be around _____%.
• More homosexual couples are living together openly + some states are now allowing them to marry or have “_______
• More Americans are choosing to remain single. Why?
• ________ on being single
• Pursuing _______ +/or personal goals
• Boomerang kids • Adult children who _____________________ or who continue to live w/ their parents.
• American adults 18-34 yrs old are more likely to live in the parents’ home now than they were
30 yrs ago.
• About __ adults lived w/ their parents in 2004.
• Why are more people becoming boomerang kids?
• Continuing education
• ___________ to live alone
• Marrying later
• Consequences for parents can be a financial burden, ________________, +/or marital dissatisfaction.
• Consequences for children besides circumstances that caused them to move in can be a ________________ + feelings of guilt/shame.
End Section 4
• The bureaucratic nature of schools
• In the early 1900s, school administration was based on a ____________. Educators believed education should be mass produced. Although schools now attempt to be more _____________, they are still highly bureaucratic in nature, based heavily on specialization, rules + procedures, + ___________.
• Why follow a bureaucratic model?
• Teachers, guidance counselors, librarians, administrators, etc… are __________ which allow for more efficiency.
• It’s also more efficient to group students by
• Teaching similar content allow materials to be ___________________ + testing can be
___________. Also allows students to
• Challenging formal education
• Formal schooling (education that is provided +
________________) is criticized as not meeting the expressive, creative + emotional needs of all children.
• Reforms to education began in the 1920s w/ the humanistic movement + has 3 main ways of
1. The Open Classroom is a non-bureaucratic approach education based on democratic relationships, flexibility, + noncompetitiveness. They avoid the sharp
__________ line b/w teachers + students.
It also abandons ___________________
+ the use of graded report cards as it believes ________ isn’t a good motivator.
2. Cooperative Learning takes place in a nonbureaucratic classroom structure where students _____________ w/ teachers as
______ instead of controlling agents.
Emphasizes cooperation, not competition.
- Uncooperativeness + ______ among students .
- Academic performance .
- Students have more _________
________ toward school.
- Racial + ethnic antagonism .
- ____________ .
3. Integrative Curriculum is an approach to education based on _________________
____________ in determining the curriculum. Subject matter is selected + organized around certain ___________ themes. Emphasizes a hands-on approach.
• Back-to-basics movement
• Began in the 1990s, alongside the cooperative learning + integrative curriculum. Started by people worried by
___________________________ who wanted a return to ________________ based on more bureaucratic methods.
• Started due to a 1983 report entitled A
Nation at Risk which claimed America’s schools were deficient + the US was in danger of being ___________________
• Encouraged more bureaucratic solutions + ________________ at school (more core classes, longer school days/years, more achievement tests, more homework for high-schoolers, + tighter discipline).
• Alternatives to the public school system
• A current debate in education is over
______________. The idea is that
_________ among schools will improve schools overall. Students/parents choose the schools they believe best fits their needs. There are several ways of accomplishing this goal:
• The Voucher
• A system in which __________________ may be used to support public, private, or _________ schools.
• Families w/ children attending public school continue to ____________. Families w/ children attending religious or other private school would receive a ________ from the gov.’t to help pay a portion of the tuition equal to the amount the gov.’t spends per child in the public school system w/ the remaining amount to be paid by the parents.
• Has had a ____________. Only 6 states allow it.
36 states prohibit it in their constitutions.
• Some courts reject it as ____________ (due to public $ going to religious institutions) but some cases of vouchers have been upheld.
• Some favor it for choice + forcing schools to
• Some oppose it for draining public school funds + potentially leading to racial + class ___________.
• Charter + magnet schools
• Charter schools are publicly funded schools operated like _______________ by public school teachers + administrators.
• They don’t have to answer to local school boards + have __________ to design their own curriculum + use different teaching methods.
• Magnet schools are public schools that focus on a _________ such as fine arts or science.
• The are designed to enhance school quality + promote desegregation.
They have been shown to be a significant factor in _____________
• For-profit schools
• Schools run by ______________ on gov.’t funds.
• They borrow from __________________
_________ to try to be more efficient, productive, + cost productive.
• The belief behind these schools is that gov.’t is too wasteful + ineffective so a
_________________ would allow the best schools to survive + weak schools would fail.
• Lack public oversight + critics argue that these schools may __________________
End Section 1
• The functionalist perspective’s view of education
• According to functionalists, social institutions exist b/c they meet one or more of society’s __________.
• A manifest function is an ___________ + recognized result.
• Some manifest functions of education are to teach
____________, transmit culture, create a common identity, select + screen ______, + promote personal growth.
• Schools help _____________ by instilling the basic values + norms of the society.
• They create a common identity by teaching a common language, ___________________ w/ patriotic themes, + teaching similar content.
• They select + screen talent through intelligence + achievement tests. Their results can be used for tracking (placing students in programs according to ____________ levels).
• They promote personal growth by exposing students to various activities + experiences
(ex. assemblies + ___________________).
• A latent function is an ________ + unrecognized result.
• Some latent functions of education include:
• Making friends + finding dates
• Training grounds for __________
• A dysfunction is an unintended + _______ result.
• Some dysfunctions of education include:
• Can perpetuate unequal ______________ structure
• Delinquents can meet + commit various
End Section 2
• The conflict perspective’s view of education
• The conflict perspective attempts to show that the popular conceptions about the relationship b/w schools + society ___________________.
• In a meritocracy, social status is based on ability + achievement instead of parental status. In theory, all individuals have an equal chance to ______________________ for the benefit of themselves + their society.
• Meritocracy is based on competition (the social process that occurs when rewards are given to people on the basis of how
_________________________ w/ the performance of others doing the same task or participating in the same event).
• Although the US claims to be a ___________, some barriers for certain people have been identified to true merit-based achievement such as gender, race, ethnicity + ___________
• Why the inequalities?
• _________ are more likely to live in poorer areas w/
_________________. In turn, they score lower on the SAT/ACT + can’t get into higher level universities. Thus, they tend to get into lowerpaying careers keeping them + their children in a lower socioeconomic status which ______________.
• Cognitive ability is the capacity for __________________.
• Cultural bias is the __________________ of the cognitive abilities of people in some social categories.
• B/c some tests measuring cognitive ability have a cultural bias, some groups of students __________ than their actual abilities.
• So why are tests culturally biased?
________ of the test – some students may not know certain words due to lack of exposure or having learned it as a 2 nd language.
Lack of ______ in the testing environment.
Lack of understanding of the importance of the test.
Lack of _______ for impoverished children.
• Educational equality exists when schooling produces the same
results of achievement + attitudes for __________________ children as it does for less disadvantaged children.
• Research has shown that even the ___________ often evaluate students on the basis of their social class + their racial/ethnic characteristics.
• 2 methods of promoting educational equality are:
School desegregation is the achievement of a
__________ in the classroom. W/o adequate support, desegregation can ____________ of all races. W/ support, minority students get better jobs not just b/c of the education but b/c they get exposed to behavior, dress, + language often _______________________.
- Exposure to different groups of people can lead to _________________. This is the basis for multicultural education
(an educational curriculum that emphasizes differences among gender, ethnic, + racial categories).
Compensatory education refers to the specific curricular programs designed to ___________
__________ (ex. Head Start).
End Section 3
• The symbolic interactionist perspective’s view of education
• Symbolic interactionists are interested in how _________
______________ through the socialization process. They are particularly interested in the hidden curriculum (the
________________ that teaches children norms + values of their society).
• Schools socialize children to transition from their families to the competitive adult occupational world.
• Conformity + achievement are emphasized through
• Patriotism + a sense of civic duty are transmitted though a view of __________________________.
• Textbooks convey values by what they exclude as much as by what they include. Examples include past treatment of ________________________.
• Teachers can unintentionally effect a student’s performance based on his/her _____________________
____________. This creates a self-fulfilling prophecy (a prediction that results in behavior that makes the prediction come true). When teachers expect children to do well, they are more likely to do so, + when they expect them to do poorly, they are more likely to do so as well.
• Teachers can also unintentionally __________.
End Section 4
• The link b/w economics + politics
• The economic institution is the set of functions that concern how ___________
____________________________ for a society.
• B/c economic decisions affect how resources are shared b/w organizations + the general public, ______________. The political institution is the institution through which _____________________
__________. It has the responsibility for handling the conflicts that come from certain economic decisions.
• Think of economics as the distribution of
_______ + politics as the exercise of power.
• Power + authority
Power is the ability to ___________________ of others – even against their will.
Power takes different forms.
Ex. political, $, fame, ____________, etc…
• Coercion is control through the use or _____________.
• A political system based on coercive power is ________
_________ – the people will want to rise against it.
• Authority is power accepted as _______ by those subject to it.
• Ex. teachers grade students, gov.’ts collect taxes, etc…
• Forms of authority:
Charismatic authority comes from the personality of an individual.
- Leaders have strong personalities + can often _________________.
- ________ - gone as soon as leader dies.
Traditional authority is authority w/ legitimacy through __________.
- Kings pass their kingdom to sons.
Rational-legal authority is the authority of gov.’t officials based on the ___________________.
- The power is w/ the office, not the individual. They still have to obey laws.
• Types of political systems
• Democracy – type of gov.’t in which the supreme authority rests w/ the people (__________________).
• In a representative democracy individuals are elected to
Assumes not everyone in modern society can be actively involved in all __________________ + that elected officials who don’t satisfy the wishes of the majority won’t win reelections.
• Totalitarianism – a political system in which a ruler w/ absolute power attempts to control __________________________.
Characteristics of a totalitarian gov.’t include:
• __________________ – usually controlled by 1 person.
• A monopoly over __________ resources.
• A planned economy directed by the state.
• ______________ – crush opposition, spy + intimidate.
• Indoctr ination – instruction in the ________________
• Propaganda + censorship – gov.’t _________________.
• Religious or ethnic persecution – often create “enemies of the state” (someone to blame for ______________).
• Authoritarianism – a political system controlled by elected or nonelected rulers who usually permit ____________________
__________. In b/w democracy + totalitarianism.
End Section 1
• Voting in the US
• The US has one of the ___________________ rates in the industrialized world w/ usually around _____ of eligible voters voting.
• This is partly due to a low level of confidence in ________________.
• The choice voters have is limited by several factors:
• The ______________________ – to get elected to a high office, a person usually must have the support of one of the major parties. To get party support, a candidate must appeal to the most voters possible, which means candidates _________ each other in many ways.
• The cost of running a political campaign.
• Political socialization is the informal + formal process by which a person develops _________
_________. The major agents of political socialization are:
• The _______ – about 2/3 Americans follow the ___________ as their parents
• ________ – the more educated the person, the more likely they are to being politically knowledgeable + active.
• ___________ - draws attention to various topics, emphasizes some problems while downplaying or ignoring others. Determines what ______________ + forces politicians to take notice.
• Economic status + occupation – we tend to vote based on how issues affect our
• Age + gender – younger people tend to be
_____________. Women tend to be more concerned w/ women’s issues.
• _______________ are also factors
• 2 models of political power
• Democratic societies have 2 models of political power:
• Pluralism is when political decisions are the result of _____________________ among special interest groups. No one group holds the majority of power.
Power is ____________________ throughout a society.
Functionalists focus on pluralism + how decisions are made based on the
__________ shared by the general public.
Interest groups (groups organized to _________________________ making) help advance their cause(s).
Elitism is when a society is controlled from the top by a _____________________________.
Power is concentrated in the hands of a few w/ common interests + backgrounds w/ the masses having ______________
Conflict perspective followers focus on elitism + how the key economic, political,
+ military leaders overlap to form a
___________ known as the power elite.
- In the US, the power elite is said to be educated in select boarding schools, ______________, + Ivey
League schools. They belong to the
Episcopalian + Presbyterian churches. They also come from
__________________, have many mutual acquaintances, share many values, + intermarry
End Section 2
Land – includes all “_______________” land, water, natural resources (like diamonds, oil, iron, etc…)
Entrepreneurs – someone who brings together ____________
______ + organizes them to produce goods or offer services
The Factors of Production
Labor – people
+ their _________
They take the _____ doing something new + aren’t considered part of labor
Capital – ______
____ resources (such as buildings, equipment, tools, machinery, services,
The only factor that assists result of ______
• Capitalism • Characterized by private (or corporate)
________________ + the pursuit of profit.
• Consumers, workers, + entrepreneurs have ____________________.
• Minimum of gov.’t interference – they should protect citizens from _______.
______________ – individuals own capital, workers
+ property rights
___________ – promotes what drives the economy efficiency + better products
• Inadequate competition
• Over time, mergers + acquisitions have led to ________
_______________ dominating various industries. This has led to a in competition which has several important consequences:
1. Inefficient __________________ – including $
(instead of investing in the company, executives may get big bonuses + benefits).
2. prices + output – “________________”
3. Economic + political power
• Monopoly - A market structure w/ only _________ of a particular product. They control production + distribution of a product or service.
• It is a ______________.
• Ex: Utilities – determined by the gov.’t
• Mostly illegal
• Oligopoly – A market structure in which a ___________
________ dominate the industry.
• The product may be exactly the same or different.
• Ex: Coke + Pepsi
• Sometimes the businesses may take part in _________.
(Your book calls this socialism –
DO NOT CALL
• Is an economic system which calls for the collective, or ____, ownership of land + other
• _______ observed the plight of the workers during the Industrial Revolution + wrote The
Communist Manifesto (along w/ Friedrich
Engels) in response.
• He believed that history was an ongoing
• He believed that the _________
(proletariat) would rise up against the
_________ (bourgeoisie) in a violent revolution. These violent revolutions would continue until eventually the capitalist system would by overthrown + everyone would work for the benefit of society + share in its _____________.
• Marx would become known as the
_________ of communism (+ socialism).
• How countries implement communism
Characteristics of Communist
Role of the
_____________ – it has control over the gov.’t + the economy (leads to control over social, intellectual, + religious life also).
_____________ – the gov.’t makes all economic decisions such as planning what + how much farms + factories will produce. It sets goals + prices. It also decides how goods + services will be distributed
____________ – private farms are all combined under gov.’t control (in theory).
____________ – the gov.’t owns all industries
• Failures of communism – _______________ motive, poor central planning, corruption, etc.
• Socialism (Your book calls this
Mixed economic systems)
• An economic + political philosophy based on the idea that the benefits of economic activity (wealth) should be
• This is achieved through the principle of
__________ (meaning public or gov.’t)
________ of the most important means by which goods + services are produced + distributed, as well as some other major industries.
• In other words, the public controls the _______________________.
• Instead of emphasizing competition for profit (like many capitalist nations), socialists tend to emphasize cooperation
• A major socialist movement began during the Industrial Revolution as the gap b/w the ___________________ .
• How countries implement socialism
Characteristics of Socialist
(the gov.’t acquires
_____________ for public use) often includes utilities transportation, steel, oil, etc.
______________ – socialist countries provide equal distribution of necessities + services such as housing, health care, free college, etc.
_________ – although gov.’ts of both capitalist + socialist countries provide services through taxation, taxes in socialist countries are much
_______ – instead of just private individuals deciding what to invest in + what to produce, the gov.’t also has a lot of input as to how the economy will develop.
• Welfare states are countries that provide
_____________________ at little or no cost.
Around _______% of income goes to taxes
- middle + upper classes pay a higher %
End Section 3
• Corporations • A form of business controlled by __________, who have limited liability + limited control, recognized by law as a separate legal entity having all the ________________.
• Gives it the right to buy + sell _________, enter contracts, + to sue/be sued.
• Shares of _____ (certificates of ownership) are sold to shareholders (or stockholders) who “_____” the company.
• If the company is profitable, they get a % of its
• If it goes into debt, they may lose their investment, but ____________.
• Top corporate officials can influence _____________ by using their wealth + power to punish or reward elected officials. They may donate to campaigns or leave if they disagree w/ the gov.’ts economic policies – taking ____ w/ them.
• A corporation is run by its ______________________.
Interlocking directorates occur when the heads of corporations sit on one another’s boards. This ________ their power/influence greatly.
• A firm that has at least ___________ that each make unrelated products, none of which make up a majority of its _______.
• The idea is to avoid putting all your eggs in one basket.
Percentage of sales for businesses in a producing:
• Makes it difficult to know who _________.
• Corporations that make goods +/or provide services in
_________________ (can also be ______________).
• Some of the most powerful multinationals have sales volumes greater than the economic output of some
____________ (p. 447).
• Able to move resources, goods, services, + $ across
• Can be beneficial b/c they transfer ______________, create new jobs, generate more tax $.
• Can be detrimental b/c they may be ___________, pay low wages to workers, export scarce natural resources,
+/or interfere w/ the development of local businesses.
End Section 4
• The 3 economic sectors
• The primary sector is the part of the economy producing goods from the ____________________.
• Ex. Farmers, miners, ranchers, fishermen, etc…
• The secondary sector is the part of the economy engaged in
• Ex. Factory workers, often called blue-collar workers.
• The tertiary sector is the part of the economy ______________.
• Ex. Teachers, cops, doctors, actors, mechanics, etc…
• Before the Industrial Revolution, most workers were in the ______ sector. Afterwards, more were in the _______ sector. W/ more recent technological advances occurring post-WWII requiring less manufacturing, most workers now work in the ______ sector (77% of Americans).
ACTIVITY BUSINESS INVOLVED
• Occupational structure
• Occupations are categories of jobs that involve similar activities at _______________________.
• Ex. Teacher, cop, electrician, dental assistant, etc… - all involve similar training no matter where they work.
• While manufacturing jobs have been going overseas, the US has been gaining some jobs in ____________
__________. However, there are two concerns:
1. Many of the jobs being gained offer _______.
2. The new jobs require ______________ then those people have who used to work in
• Since the 1970s many major corporations have been downsizing (the process by which companies their
_______ workforce). To save $, they then their contingent employment (hiring of part-time, shortterm workers). Contingent workers receive lower pay + no benefits. Some believe that this trend is the gap b/w the haves + the haves nots + is causing workers to have ____________ in their management.
End Section 5
• Religion + sociology
• A religion is a unified __________________ + practices concerned w/ sacred things.
• Sacred means “____” or set apart + given a special meaning that goes beyond immediate existence.
• Secular (or _______) refers to the nonsacred aspects of life. Not unholy, just
• What is sacred in one culture can be secular in others + ______________.
• What is sacred can ____________ over time + what is secular can become sacred.
• Sociologists approach religion as a ________
________ + focus on the social aspects of religion that can be observed + measured.
• Read p.492-93 “India’s Sacred Cow”
End Section 1
• Religion exists in some form in almost ______________.
• Evidence of religion can be traced back to 50,000 B.C.
• Emile Durkheim was the 1 st sociologist to look at religion
_____________ + wonder why religion can be found in so many societies. He concluded that societies used sacred symbols as a mirror for themselves, + that through religious rituals, people __________________ + remind themselves of their shared past + future existence.
• Other social functions of religion include:
• ___________ to the current social arrangements
– justifies social norms/ attitudes + makes them legitimate (to give _________________ to). It explains why some should have power or not, why we should do some things + not others, etc…
• Encourages a sense of ______ – provides a social order + causes us to work together (but can also divide a society).
• Provides a _____________________ – gives us a sense of place in the world + eternal significance to our short existence.
• Promotes a sense of belonging – helps us feel
___________ to others.
• The conflict theory + religion
• The conflict theory focuses on how religion works to discourage or encourage _______________.
• Karl Marx believed religion was the “_______________”.
People believed they shouldn’t do anything to go against their faith even if it kept them bad circumstances. He believed that religion was a tool for those in power to keep their power + that the workers should ______________.
• He saw religion as working against social change.
• Max Weber explained how the of __________ helped the of ________. He noticed that capitalism emerged in NW Europe + in the US. Some Protestant sects saw work as a ____________ which led to what Weber called the Protestant ethic (a set of norms + attitudes stressing hard work, thrift, + self-discipline). This came in large part from John Calvin’s beliefs that ______________ his chosen ones in this life, consumption beyond necessity is
_______, + that life + material goods should be used to
_____________. This led to the spirit of capitalism (the obligation to reinvest $ in business rather than spend it) + the growth of business.
• He saw _______ as possibly helping to cause social change.
• Symbolic interactionism
• Peter Berger believed that when humans create religious traditions they are providing a cover of _______________ to lay over the __________. They use these meaning to guide everyday social interaction.
• They give people a way to identify what is ________ + what is not.
• They provide stability + security.
People are more likely to become religious in ________
_______ b/c religion can help provide them w/ a sense of certainty + relief (like the idea of an afterlife or affirmation that a decision made is the morally correct one).
End Section 2
• Religious organization
• In Western societies, most people practice religion through some _______________________.
• So religions can be organized by church, denomination, sect, + cult.
• Sociologists consider a church to be a life-encompassing religious organization to which ___________________ belong.
• Exists when a __________________ are closely intertwined.
• Ex. Italy centuries ago under the Catholic Church or England under the Church of England.
• When Americans talk about a “church” we are actually referring to a denomination, which is one of several religious organizations that most members of a society
• Denominations aren’t tied to the state, so membership is voluntary + _________________
_____________ is socially acceptable.
• A sect is a religious organization formed out of a desire to __________________ religious organization. They believe the current denomination has ______________ important beliefs or traditions.
• A cult is a religious organization whose characteristics _______
______________ existing religious traditions w/in a society.
• They either get their views from outside the society or create them from w/in.
• Many people associate cults w/ _____ beliefs + behavior but many cults aren’t.
• So why do people join cults? B/c they:
Provide a supportive community to help overcome loneliness + provide emotional ties. They often use ___________ when talking about members.
Emphasize immediate experience + emotional gratification. Religion is “___” rather than just being thought about.
Claim to offer something _______________ in an artificial world.
Extremist cults emphasize security through
_____________. Provides converts w/ feelings of certainty + safety.
Indicators of cults are if they require
_________ from family + friends, use of ____, severe punishment or psychological conditioning,
+/or claims of special knowledge ____________ can know.
• Religiosity • Ways in which people ________ their religious attitudes + behaviors in their everyday lives.
• There are 5 dimensions of religiosity:
1. _______ – what a person believes to be true.
2. ______ – religious practices people are expected to perform. They may be
3. Intellectual dimension – knowledge of holy or sacred ___________.
4. _________ – certain feelings attached to religious expression (ex. feeling close to the deity when praying).
5. _____________ – are the decisions + commitments people make due to their religious beliefs. These consequences may deal w/ private or public issues (ex. abstaining from sex before marriage + opposing abortion).
End Section 3
• Development of religion in the US
• The 1 st settlers to colonize what would become the US were looking for __________________
____________ + the Puritans believed that they would be a religious example to the world. This has led to the idea of American exceptionalism – the belief that the US is a special + unique example of liberty + democracy for the
• Despite this the founding fathers believed in separation of __________________.
• However, certain religious minorities have
___________ in America’s history.
• Religion has also influenced periods of
American history (ex. Antislavery +
• Today, slightly less than ____ of Americans are
Protestant (particularly Baptist 16% + Methodist
8%). Catholics are 24% + Jews are 2%. The unaffiliated (atheist, agnostic, no opinion) make up about _____% of the population.
• Secularization in the US
• Secularization is the process through which the ___________________ over society.
• Ex. Education used to be provided primarily through clerics.
• Although it’s widely believed that religion is __________________ in the US, it is still highly religious when compared to other ____________________.
• There are now over ______ recognized denominations/sects + thousands of independent congregations in the US.
• Fundamentalism in the US
• Fundamentalism is the _____________________ + the rigid adherence to traditional religious beliefs, rituals, + doctrines.
• It has been on the in the US for the last 30 or so yrs.
• __________________ – Christian (including Catholics,
Protestants, Morons), Muslims, + Jews. However, in the
US it mostly involves ___________.
• Fundamentalists are politically ___________.
• Protestant fundamentalists in the US believe in the
_______________ of the Scriptures.
• Protestant fundamentalists aren’t _______________.
Denominations fundamentalism is predominately found in include Mormons, Baptists, + Jehovah’s Witnesses.
• Why is fundamentalism on the ?
• They offer ___________ in an uncertain world.
• They tend to be less formal + impersonal than
• They claim to offer a more purely sacred environment.
• The ________ has helped spread their message.
• Religion, social class,
• Social class – on average, Presbyterians,
Episcopalians, + Jews are likely to be at _______ social classes; Catholics, Methodists, + Lutherans are likely to be in the _____; + Baptists are more likely to be at the _______ social classes.
• Upper classes tend to express their religiosity through _________________, church attendance, + observance of rituals.
Lower classes tend to express their religiosity through private prayer +
• Political affiliation – Jews + Catholics are more likely to be __________, while most Protestants denominations are more likely to be _________.
• Jews + Catholics have been discriminated against + are more likely to favor stronger separation of church + state. Protestants being in the majority are more likely to want to allow religion into ____________.
• Religion, science, + society
• Religion + science both examine humanity’s
___________________. Religion involves matters beyond human observation while science focuses on what can be observed.
• While many scientists are religious + many clerics support the field of science, sometimes there is ________ b/w the two.
• In the US, the separation of church + state has led to scientific explanations for
________________ while religious groups may teach their own interpretations w/in their organizations.
End Section 4
• A set of competitive activities in which winners + losers are determined by _______
_________ w/in a set of established ____.
• Teaches some of the ______________ of a society + promotes attachment to society
(cheering for the home team).
• In the US, it reflects our emphasis on
• Like many other aspects of society in the
US, women are 2 nd to men in power in sports.
• A sport subculture is a group w/ ________ roles, values, norms, + beliefs that is organized around a sport activity.
End Section 1
• Some contradictions in sports
• Although sports help teach + reinforce culture, there are many ____________ in sports. Examples include:
• Can ______________ social classes + racial/ethnic groups but may heighten barriers that separate groups.
• Can promote _______ by teaching the importance of following the rules but may tempt people to cheat due to their
• Can promote muscle strength, weight control, + endurance but may lead to the use of _______, excessive weight loss or gain + injuries.
• Can contribute to _______________ through scholarships but may take away $ from academics + emphasize athletics over academics.
• Functionalists believe sports help society work more smoothly. They:
• Teach basic beliefs, norms, + values.
• Promote a sense of ________
• Offer a safe release of ________
(physical + verbal).
• Encourages the _______________
_________ through hard work + discipline.
• But there are also dysfunctions. They:
• Desire to achieve can lead to
___________ + excessive violence.
• Encourage steroid use or extreme
• The conflict theory + sports
• Conflict theorists view sports are a social institution in which the ________
_________, manipulate, + coerce others.
• They emphasize the way sports mirror the unequal _________________ + $ in society.
• They argue that the unity produced by home teams is ____________.
• They debate the belief that sports help form _________________.
• Sportsmanship tends to the
____________ athletes become in sport systems. Ex. non-scholarship athletes show more sportsmanship that scholarship athletes + the many scandals pro-athletes have been involved in.
• Symbolic interactionism
• Symbolic interactionists focus on symbols in sports + how they influence the development of ___________________
____________ of those involved.
• For ex. adults might teach hard work, fair play, __________, + winning, but these messages may be interpreted as
__________, toughness, + risky behavior.
End Section 2
• Sports + social mobility
Odds of a high school athlete playing pro
• College athletes as a whole are _______
_________ than college students who don’t participate in sports.
• Some people believe that sports are a social class escalator for __________.
Average career length in pros
• However others argue that this emphasis on success in sports is bad b/c it takes away attention from
______________. Minority children then often spend to much time + energy improving their athletic skills though they’re highly unlikely to become a professional athlete + then have __________________.
• Sports + sport ___________ can help minorities + other athletes gain access to a college education they might not have otherwise though.
• Sports + racism
• Stacking is the process of assigning minority players to __________________
(which often involve more __________
• Ex. Few black quarterbacks but many blacks in other less central positions.
These positions often have
__________ that cut those careers short.
• Although blacks appear to make as much or more $ than white pro-sports players, when
_________________ is accounted for, blacks must perform better than whites to avoid __________________.
• Minorities are also ________________ in positions of power w/in their sport (ex. coaches, owners, announcers, etc…)
• Sexism in sports
• Sexism in sports can be traced back all the way to the
_____________, where the few ________ who were athletic were depicted as not being attracted to or attractive by men.
• ___________ have traditionally discouraged females from playing sports. Female athletes were seen as more __________. Also, some used to believe that it would harm women’s health especially her ability to
• In 1972, Title IX was passed by the federal gov.’t requiring females have ______________ to sports – although interpreting this law has been __________.
• Currently the courts favor a ____________ of each gender to match the school’s population.
• It has also led a in women in ___________
____ in sports b/c as women’s sports gain more respect, men are more willing to take those positions.
• Women are very _________________ in pro-sports.
End Section 3