Unit 1: Approaches to Psychology


Unit 4: Social


Ch 11: The Family

Ch 12: Education

Ch 13: Political and Economic


Ch 14: Religion

Ch 15: Sport

• Family

Ch 11 – The Family

• A group of people related by ______, blood, or _______.

• The family we’re _______ is our family of orientation. It provides children w/ a name, identity, + a heritage. It directs (orients) a child into their community + society. It also gives them an ______________ in the community.

• The family of procreation is established by __________.

Marriage is a ______________ based on mutual rights + obligations.

• The family of procreation becomes the family of orientation for the ________________ from the marriage.

• The nuclear family is a family structure compose of one or both _____________________.

• The extended family consists of 2 or more _______

____________ of the same family whose members share

economic resources + live in the same household. It

includes grandparents, aunts/uncles, cousins, etc…

• Patterns of family structure

• Patterns of behavior w/in a family relate to _________, authority, + place of ___________.

• Who inherits?

• Patrilineal: descent + inheritance are passed from the ________ to his male descendants.

• Matrilineal: descent + inheritance are passed from the ________ to her female descendants.

• Bilateral: descent + inheritance are passed equally through ________________.

• Who is in authority?

• Patriarchy: the ________ living in the household has authority over the rest of the family.

• Matriarchy: the ____________ living in the household has authority over the rest of the family.

• Equalitarian: authority is ________ b/w husband

+ wife.

• Where to couples live?

• Patrilocal: Lives w/ or near the _______ parents.

• Matrilocal: Lives w/ or near the ______ parents.

• Neolocal: Establishes a residence of _________.

• Marriage arrangements they are all a ritual designed to communicate that a _____________________ + that any children born to them can legitimately inherit the family __________________.

• Monogamy is the marriage of one man to one woman (although increasingly this can include a monogamous gay/lesbian couple). This is the _________________ form of marriage in the world today.

• Polygamy is the marriage of a male or female to _____________________ at a time.

• Polygyny is the marriage of one man to

2 or more women at the same time.

• Rare, occurs legally in parts of

Africa, India, + the _________.

• Polyandry is the marriage of one woman to 2 or more men at the same time.

• Men are usually ________.

• Only known to have been common in 3 societies – Tibet, Polynesia,

+ the hill peoples of India.

• Choosing a mate

• All cultures have norms + laws about who may _________ whom.

• Exogamy refers to the mate-selection norms requiring individuals to marry someone ________________ or group

(Exo means “________”).





• If by ______________ + not a social norm other terms are used:

• Homogamy refers to the tendency to marry someone _____ to oneself.


• Ex. The incest taboo is a norm forbidding marriage b/w close relatives. What qualifies as incest ____ from one society to another.

• Endogamy refers to the mate-selection norms requiring individuals to marry someone w/in their own kind (Endo means “________”).

• Ex. Norms + laws requiring someone to marry w/in their own race, though these norms are becoming

• Ex. Same race, religion, socioeconomic status, etc…

• More common

• Heterogamy refers to a marriage b/w people w/ ________ social characteristics.

• Ex. Different race, religion, socioeconomic status, etc…

• ____________, but due to more integration + media exposure.

End Section 1

• Sociological views of the family

• Functionalism: Focuses on the ______ provided by families.

• _____________________

• Provides socioemotional maintenance

(providing acceptance + ________). W/o this, children would not develop normally – may develop low self-esteem, inability to express emotions, etc…

• Provides an orderly means for ________

• Regulates _____________ – all societies have rules + norms governing sexual behaviors (incest, age limits, etc…) which are usually enforced by the family

• Transmits _______________ – provides economic resources to enter desired occupations as well as the values common in each social status

• Provides ________________ – they take care of what is needed to survive.

• Conflict Theory: Focuses on ______________.

B/c most family structures throughout history have been patriarchal + patrilineal, women have been considered the _____________. So most families have a built-in gender inequality.

Traditionally women provide free cooking, cleaning, + child-rearing, making it possible for men to work outside the home for wages + thus controlling the family finances. Women are kept dependent + ____________.

• Symbolic Interactionism: Focuses on _______

____________ + they contribute to children’s socialization + development of a self-concept.

Our 1 st interactions are w/ our family + these interactions help children acquire _________ + social characteristics. These relationships are

_________________ (ex. w/ marriage, having children, divorce, retirement, etc…).

End Section 2

• The nature of the American family

• Although there are many ________ most families in America (no matter of what race or ethnicity) have the following characteristics:

• Nuclear (only one set of parents + children in a single home).

• Bilateral

• __________ (partners share in the decision making)

• Neolocal

• ___________

• Marriage • The marriage rate is the # of marriages per yr for every thousand members of the population.

• Why do people marry?

• _______

• To enter a _________________

• Advance a _________

• Conformity/pressure from family

+/or friends (over ___% of people in

America get married)

• __________________

• Etc…

• Partners chosen will be based on attributes such as class/caste, wealth, family reputation, appearance, etc…

• Divorce

• The divorce rate is the # of divorces per yr for every thousand members of the population.

• Causes of divorce at the individual level include:

• The _____ of people when they get married (the it is, the less likely they are to get divorced).

• How many yrs the couple has been

________ (the it is, the less likely they are to get divorced).

• The nature + quality of the relationship. The more _________ + flexibility that exists b/w the partners the the chance of divorce


(YES, you need to know these!)

• About ½ of marriages end in divorce.

• Success or failure of a marriage basically stems from 2 things:

1. How often they share intimate +


2. How couples handle __________.

• Happy couples argue, but they:

- _______ to each other.

- Focus on SOLVING THE


- Show _________.

• Causes of divorce at the ______________ include:

• _______________ (people are more likely to get divorced when times are good + less likely when times are bad – probably b/c they’re more willing to take chances in good times, or can


• _________________ about divorce.

Americans are less likely to

_________ people who get divorced.

• The ____________________ of women – no longer have to stay w/ a male provider.

• Domestic violence

• Early research on domestic violence made it appear limited mostly to _____________. This research was distorted b/c it came from ____ + public hospital records (wealthier people are more likely to avoid the police + go to private hospitals).

• Almost ¼ of adults in the US report having been physically abused as _______. Abuse includes a slap, shove, kicking, punching, biting, severe spanking, or threatening w/ a weapon.

• Estimates are that ¼ girls + 1/10 boys are victims of ________________ (in the home or outside).

• At least 4 million women are beaten by their husbands each yr. This # is _______________ partly b/c ¾ of spousal abuse takes place when a couple is _________ + most research is done on married couples.

• ______________ is much more common than most people realize. Physical violence against husbands is almost equal to that against wives;

HOWEVER, much of the violence committed by women involves ____________________


• Verbal + psychological abuse, like neglect, are also problems.

• ____________ seems to be the most common form of domestic violence.

• ___________ hasn’t been studied long, but is expected to as people begin living longer.

End Section 3

• Types of families

• Today, the “__________” American family

(working dad, homemaker mom, + 2 kids) accounts for ___________ of all American families – compared to over 60% in 1950.

• Current families are increasingly likely to be:

• _________ families

• Single-parent families

• __________ marriages

• Dual-employed marriages

• ___________

• Same-sex domestic partners

• __________ only

• Have boomerang kids

• Blended families

• A family formed when at least one of the partners in a marriage has a child or children from a ______


• About ____% of households in the US contain biologically unrelated individuals (besides the married couple).

• Half-siblings are brothers or sisters who share

EITHER the same ________________________.

• Step-siblings are related by marriage of one of each of their parents, + have no __________________.

• Major problems facing blended families:

1. _________ – often have to pay alimony +/or child support.

2. ____________________ – may resent new marriage + new siblings

3. ____________ – Power struggles may occur b/w stepparents + stepchildren, especially if children are teenagers.

• Single-parent families

• Over _____ of American families is a single-parent family.

• Only 10% of these children live in a ___________ household. Why?

• Women in all social classes are still more likely to ______________ of their children

(although this has been ).

#s come from the 2010 Census

• Unwed mothers + mothers ___________ by their children’s fathers make up a large part of poor single-parent households + these women marry/remarry at a ____________.

• Although much fewer, an # of _______

__________________ women head singleparent households by choosing to have a child alone. This is largely due to the single parent stigma .

• Adolescents (youths 12-17 yrs old) in single-parent families or w/ step-parents are more likely to have

_________________, often due to single parents’ lack of time +/or $.

• Childless marriages

• In the past, married women w/o kids were pitied + _______________. Today, more married women are choosing not to have kids. Why?

• stigma about being _________

• To pursue personal +/or career goals

• Wait too long + ____________

• Incapable of having kids

• Are these marriages happier than those w/ kids?

• Typically, if the couple wants kids, but can’t have them, they’re _____ happy. If they chose not to have kids, than they’re usually ________.

• Dual-employed marriages

• Marriages in which both spouses work outside the home.

• Disadvantages:

• __________ for kids

• Often places a disproportionate amount of work/stress/guilt on the _______

• Women still typically do more of the household + child-raising duties

• Some men may feel conflicted if their wife

_____________ than they do.

• Advantages:

• Greater feelings of control, independence,

+ self-esteem for ________ who choose to work.

• _____________

• Men don’t have the stress of being the


• Happier wives means happier husbands

• Cohabitation • Living w/ someone in a _______________ arrangement w/o the _______________ + responsibilities of a formal marriage.

• # has been

• Only about ¼ cohabitating couples stay together more than _______

• If they do marry, they tend to be less satisfied in that marriage + more likely to

________ later.

• Same-sex domestic partners or marriages

• B/c there is still a stigma attached to homosexuality, it’s impossible to know how many Americans are gay. The # has been estimated to be around _____%.

• More homosexual couples are living together openly + some states are now allowing them to marry or have “_______


• Singles

• More Americans are choosing to remain single. Why?

• ________ on being single

• Pursuing _______ +/or personal goals

• Boomerang kids • Adult children who _____________________ or who continue to live w/ their parents.

• American adults 18-34 yrs old are more likely to live in the parents’ home now than they were

30 yrs ago.

• About __ adults lived w/ their parents in 2004.

• Why are more people becoming boomerang kids?

• Continuing education

• ___________ to live alone

• Marrying later

• __________

• Consequences for parents can be a financial burden, ________________, +/or marital dissatisfaction.

• Consequences for children besides circumstances that caused them to move in can be a ________________ + feelings of guilt/shame.

End Section 4

Ch 12 – Education

• The bureaucratic nature of schools

• In the early 1900s, school administration was based on a ____________. Educators believed education should be mass produced. Although schools now attempt to be more _____________, they are still highly bureaucratic in nature, based heavily on specialization, rules + procedures, + ___________.

• Why follow a bureaucratic model?

• Teachers, guidance counselors, librarians, administrators, etc… are __________ which allow for more efficiency.

• It’s also more efficient to group students by


• Teaching similar content allow materials to be ___________________ + testing can be

___________. Also allows students to

transfer schools + continue learning the

same things.

• Challenging formal education

• Formal schooling (education that is provided +

________________) is criticized as not meeting the expressive, creative + emotional needs of all children.

• Reforms to education began in the 1920s w/ the humanistic movement + has 3 main ways of


1. The Open Classroom is a non-bureaucratic approach education based on democratic relationships, flexibility, + noncompetitiveness. They avoid the sharp

__________ line b/w teachers + students.

It also abandons ___________________

+ the use of graded report cards as it believes ________ isn’t a good motivator.

2. Cooperative Learning takes place in a nonbureaucratic classroom structure where students _____________ w/ teachers as

______ instead of controlling agents.

Emphasizes cooperation, not competition.

Benefits include:

- Uncooperativeness + ______ among students .

- Academic performance .

- Students have more _________

________ toward school.

- Racial + ethnic antagonism .

- ____________ .

3. Integrative Curriculum is an approach to education based on _________________

____________ in determining the curriculum. Subject matter is selected + organized around certain ___________ themes. Emphasizes a hands-on approach.

• Back-to-basics movement

• Began in the 1990s, alongside the cooperative learning + integrative curriculum. Started by people worried by

___________________________ who wanted a return to ________________ based on more bureaucratic methods.

• Started due to a 1983 report entitled A

Nation at Risk which claimed America’s schools were deficient + the US was in danger of being ___________________


• Encouraged more bureaucratic solutions + ________________ at school (more core classes, longer school days/years, more achievement tests, more homework for high-schoolers, + tighter discipline).

• Alternatives to the public school system

• A current debate in education is over

______________. The idea is that

_________ among schools will improve schools overall. Students/parents choose the schools they believe best fits their needs. There are several ways of accomplishing this goal:

The ________________

Charter Schools

Magnet Schools

_________ Schools

• The Voucher


• A system in which __________________ may be used to support public, private, or _________ schools.

• Families w/ children attending public school continue to ____________. Families w/ children attending religious or other private school would receive a ________ from the gov.’t to help pay a portion of the tuition equal to the amount the gov.’t spends per child in the public school system w/ the remaining amount to be paid by the parents.

• Has had a ____________. Only 6 states allow it.

36 states prohibit it in their constitutions.

• Some courts reject it as ____________ (due to public $ going to religious institutions) but some cases of vouchers have been upheld.

• Some favor it for choice + forcing schools to


• Some oppose it for draining public school funds + potentially leading to racial + class ___________.

• Charter + magnet schools

• Charter schools are publicly funded schools operated like _______________ by public school teachers + administrators.

• They don’t have to answer to local school boards + have __________ to design their own curriculum + use different teaching methods.

• Magnet schools are public schools that focus on a _________ such as fine arts or science.

• The are designed to enhance school quality + promote desegregation.

They have been shown to be a significant factor in _____________


• For-profit schools

• Schools run by ______________ on gov.’t funds.

• They borrow from __________________

_________ to try to be more efficient, productive, + cost productive.

• The belief behind these schools is that gov.’t is too wasteful + ineffective so a

_________________ would allow the best schools to survive + weak schools would fail.

• Lack public oversight + critics argue that these schools may __________________

__________ needs.

End Section 1

• The functionalist perspective’s view of education

• According to functionalists, social institutions exist b/c they meet one or more of society’s __________.

• A manifest function is an ___________ + recognized result.

• Some manifest functions of education are to teach

____________, transmit culture, create a common identity, select + screen ______, + promote personal growth.

• Schools help _____________ by instilling the basic values + norms of the society.

• They create a common identity by teaching a common language, ___________________ w/ patriotic themes, + teaching similar content.

• They select + screen talent through intelligence + achievement tests. Their results can be used for tracking (placing students in programs according to ____________ levels).

• They promote personal growth by exposing students to various activities + experiences

(ex. assemblies + ___________________).

• A latent function is an ________ + unrecognized result.

• Some latent functions of education include:

• ____________________

• Making friends + finding dates

• Training grounds for __________

• A dysfunction is an unintended + _______ result.

• Some dysfunctions of education include:

• Can perpetuate unequal ______________ structure

• Delinquents can meet + commit various


End Section 2

• The conflict perspective’s view of education

• The conflict perspective attempts to show that the popular conceptions about the relationship b/w schools + society ___________________.

• In a meritocracy, social status is based on ability + achievement instead of parental status. In theory, all individuals have an equal chance to ______________________ for the benefit of themselves + their society.

• Meritocracy is based on competition (the social process that occurs when rewards are given to people on the basis of how

_________________________ w/ the performance of others doing the same task or participating in the same event).

• Although the US claims to be a ___________, some barriers for certain people have been identified to true merit-based achievement such as gender, race, ethnicity + ___________


• Why the inequalities?

• _________ are more likely to live in poorer areas w/

_________________. In turn, they score lower on the SAT/ACT + can’t get into higher level universities. Thus, they tend to get into lowerpaying careers keeping them + their children in a lower socioeconomic status which ______________.

• Cognitive ability is the capacity for __________________.

• Cultural bias is the __________________ of the cognitive abilities of people in some social categories.

• B/c some tests measuring cognitive ability have a cultural bias, some groups of students __________ than their actual abilities.

• So why are tests culturally biased?

________ of the test – some students may not know certain words due to lack of exposure or having learned it as a 2 nd language.

Lack of ______ in the testing environment.

Lack of understanding of the importance of the test.

Lack of _______ for impoverished children.

• Educational equality exists when schooling produces the same

results of achievement + attitudes for __________________ children as it does for less disadvantaged children.

• Research has shown that even the ___________ often evaluate students on the basis of their social class + their racial/ethnic characteristics.

• 2 methods of promoting educational equality are:

School desegregation is the achievement of a

__________ in the classroom. W/o adequate support, desegregation can ____________ of all races. W/ support, minority students get better jobs not just b/c of the education but b/c they get exposed to behavior, dress, + language often _______________________.

- Exposure to different groups of people can lead to _________________. This is the basis for multicultural education

(an educational curriculum that emphasizes differences among gender, ethnic, + racial categories).

Compensatory education refers to the specific curricular programs designed to ___________

__________ (ex. Head Start).

End Section 3

• The symbolic interactionist perspective’s view of education

• Symbolic interactionists are interested in how _________

______________ through the socialization process. They are particularly interested in the hidden curriculum (the

________________ that teaches children norms + values of their society).

• Schools socialize children to transition from their families to the competitive adult occupational world.

• Conformity + achievement are emphasized through


• Patriotism + a sense of civic duty are transmitted though a view of __________________________.

• Textbooks convey values by what they exclude as much as by what they include. Examples include past treatment of ________________________.

• Teachers can unintentionally effect a student’s performance based on his/her _____________________

____________. This creates a self-fulfilling prophecy (a prediction that results in behavior that makes the prediction come true). When teachers expect children to do well, they are more likely to do so, + when they expect them to do poorly, they are more likely to do so as well.

• Teachers can also unintentionally __________.

End Section 4

Ch 13 – Political and Economic


• The link b/w economics + politics

• The economic institution is the set of functions that concern how ___________

____________________________ for a society.

• B/c economic decisions affect how resources are shared b/w organizations + the general public, ______________. The political institution is the institution through which _____________________

__________. It has the responsibility for handling the conflicts that come from certain economic decisions.

• Think of economics as the distribution of

_______ + politics as the exercise of power.

• Power + authority

Power is the ability to ___________________ of others – even against their will.

Power takes different forms.

Ex. political, $, fame, ____________, etc…

• Coercion is control through the use or _____________.

• A political system based on coercive power is ________

_________ – the people will want to rise against it.

• Authority is power accepted as _______ by those subject to it.

• Ex. teachers grade students, gov.’ts collect taxes, etc…

• Forms of authority:

Charismatic authority comes from the personality of an individual.

- Leaders have strong personalities + can often _________________.

- ________ - gone as soon as leader dies.

Traditional authority is authority w/ legitimacy through __________.

- Kings pass their kingdom to sons.

Rational-legal authority is the authority of gov.’t officials based on the ___________________.

- The power is w/ the office, not the individual. They still have to obey laws.

• Types of political systems

• Democracy – type of gov.’t in which the supreme authority rests w/ the people (__________________).

• In a representative democracy individuals are elected to


Assumes not everyone in modern society can be actively involved in all __________________ + that elected officials who don’t satisfy the wishes of the majority won’t win reelections.

• Totalitarianism – a political system in which a ruler w/ absolute power attempts to control __________________________.

Characteristics of a totalitarian gov.’t include:

• __________________ – usually controlled by 1 person.

• A monopoly over __________ resources.

• A planned economy directed by the state.

• ______________ – crush opposition, spy + intimidate.

• Indoctr ination – instruction in the ________________

• Propaganda + censorship – gov.’t _________________.

• Religious or ethnic persecution – often create “enemies of the state” (someone to blame for ______________).

• Authoritarianism – a political system controlled by elected or nonelected rulers who usually permit ____________________

__________. In b/w democracy + totalitarianism.

End Section 1

• Voting in the US

• The US has one of the ___________________ rates in the industrialized world w/ usually around _____ of eligible voters voting.

• This is partly due to a low level of confidence in ________________.

• The choice voters have is limited by several factors:

• The ______________________ – to get elected to a high office, a person usually must have the support of one of the major parties. To get party support, a candidate must appeal to the most voters possible, which means candidates _________ each other in many ways.

• The cost of running a political campaign.


• Political socialization is the informal + formal process by which a person develops _________

_________. The major agents of political socialization are:

• The _______ – about 2/3 Americans follow the ___________ as their parents

• ________ – the more educated the person, the more likely they are to being politically knowledgeable + active.

• ___________ - draws attention to various topics, emphasizes some problems while downplaying or ignoring others. Determines what ______________ + forces politicians to take notice.

• Economic status + occupation – we tend to vote based on how issues affect our


• Age + gender – younger people tend to be

_____________. Women tend to be more concerned w/ women’s issues.

• _______________ are also factors

• 2 models of political power

• Democratic societies have 2 models of political power:

• Pluralism is when political decisions are the result of _____________________ among special interest groups. No one group holds the majority of power.

Power is ____________________ throughout a society.

Functionalists focus on pluralism + how decisions are made based on the

__________ shared by the general public.

Interest groups (groups organized to _________________________ making) help advance their cause(s).

Elitism is when a society is controlled from the top by a _____________________________.

Power is concentrated in the hands of a few w/ common interests + backgrounds w/ the masses having ______________


Conflict perspective followers focus on elitism + how the key economic, political,

+ military leaders overlap to form a

___________ known as the power elite.

- In the US, the power elite is said to be educated in select boarding schools, ______________, + Ivey

League schools. They belong to the

Episcopalian + Presbyterian churches. They also come from

__________________, have many mutual acquaintances, share many values, + intermarry


End Section 2

• The 4 factors of production

• The _____________ required to make all goods + services.

• These are necessary in every ______:

Land – includes all “_______________” land, water, natural resources (like diamonds, oil, iron, etc…)

Entrepreneurs – someone who brings together ____________

______ + organizes them to produce goods or offer services

The Factors of Production

Labor – people

+ their _________

They take the _____ doing something new + aren’t considered part of labor

Capital – ______

____ resources (such as buildings, equipment, tools, machinery, services,

$, etc)

The only factor that assists result of ______


• Economic systems

• Communism v. Socialism v.

Capitalism Grading Powerpoint

• These 3 systems each answer the questions of production (What, how, + for whom to produce?) in different ways. They also have


__________________ should be used.

• Capitalism • Characterized by private (or corporate)

________________ + the pursuit of profit.

• Consumers, workers, + entrepreneurs have ____________________.

• Minimum of gov.’t interference – they should protect citizens from _______.

Characteristics of Capitalist


______________ – individuals own capital, workers

+ property rights


are protected


________ –

___________ – promotes what drives the economy efficiency + better products

• Inadequate competition

• Over time, mergers + acquisitions have led to ________

_______________ dominating various industries. This has led to a in competition which has several important consequences:

1. Inefficient __________________ – including $

(instead of investing in the company, executives may get big bonuses + benefits).

2. prices + output – “________________”

3. Economic + political power

• Monopoly - A market structure w/ only _________ of a particular product. They control production + distribution of a product or service.

• It is a ______________.

• Ex: Utilities – determined by the gov.’t

• Mostly illegal

• Oligopoly – A market structure in which a ___________

________ dominate the industry.

• The product may be exactly the same or different.

• Ex: Coke + Pepsi

• Sometimes the businesses may take part in _________.

• Illegal.

• Communism

(Your book calls this socialism –



• Is an economic system which calls for the collective, or ____, ownership of land + other


• _______ observed the plight of the workers during the Industrial Revolution + wrote The

Communist Manifesto (along w/ Friedrich

Engels) in response.

• He believed that history was an ongoing


• He believed that the _________

(proletariat) would rise up against the

_________ (bourgeoisie) in a violent revolution. These violent revolutions would continue until eventually the capitalist system would by overthrown + everyone would work for the benefit of society + share in its _____________.

• Marx would become known as the

_________ of communism (+ socialism).

• How countries implement communism

Characteristics of Communist


Role of the

_____________ – it has control over the gov.’t + the economy (leads to control over social, intellectual, + religious life also).

_____________ – the gov.’t makes all economic decisions such as planning what + how much farms + factories will produce. It sets goals + prices. It also decides how goods + services will be distributed


____________ – private farms are all combined under gov.’t control (in theory).

____________ – the gov.’t owns all industries

(in theory).

• Failures of communism – _______________ motive, poor central planning, corruption, etc.

• Socialism (Your book calls this

Mixed economic systems)

• An economic + political philosophy based on the idea that the benefits of economic activity (wealth) should be


• This is achieved through the principle of

__________ (meaning public or gov.’t)

________ of the most important means by which goods + services are produced + distributed, as well as some other major industries.

• In other words, the public controls the _______________________.

• Instead of emphasizing competition for profit (like many capitalist nations), socialists tend to emphasize cooperation

+ ____________________.

• A major socialist movement began during the Industrial Revolution as the gap b/w the ___________________ .

• How countries implement socialism

Characteristics of Socialist


Nationalization –

(the gov.’t acquires

_____________ for public use) often includes utilities transportation, steel, oil, etc.

______________ – socialist countries provide equal distribution of necessities + services such as housing, health care, free college, etc.

_________ – although gov.’ts of both capitalist + socialist countries provide services through taxation, taxes in socialist countries are much



_______ – instead of just private individuals deciding what to invest in + what to produce, the gov.’t also has a lot of input as to how the economy will develop.

• Welfare states are countries that provide

_____________________ at little or no cost.

Around _______% of income goes to taxes

- middle + upper classes pay a higher %

End Section 3

• Corporations • A form of business controlled by __________, who have limited liability + limited control, recognized by law as a separate legal entity having all the ________________.

• Gives it the right to buy + sell _________, enter contracts, + to sue/be sued.

• Shares of _____ (certificates of ownership) are sold to shareholders (or stockholders) who “_____” the company.

• If the company is profitable, they get a % of its


• If it goes into debt, they may lose their investment, but ____________.

• Top corporate officials can influence _____________ by using their wealth + power to punish or reward elected officials. They may donate to campaigns or leave if they disagree w/ the gov.’ts economic policies – taking ____ w/ them.

• A corporation is run by its ______________________.

Interlocking directorates occur when the heads of corporations sit on one another’s boards. This ________ their power/influence greatly.

• Conglomerates

• Multinationals

• A firm that has at least ___________ that each make unrelated products, none of which make up a majority of its _______.

• The idea is to avoid putting all your eggs in one basket.

Percentage of sales for businesses in a producing:

• Makes it difficult to know who _________.

Shoes 20%

Candles 15%

Baseballs 10%

Chocolates 20%

• Corporations that make goods +/or provide services in

_________________ (can also be ______________).

• Some of the most powerful multinationals have sales volumes greater than the economic output of some

____________ (p. 447).

• Able to move resources, goods, services, + $ across


• Can be beneficial b/c they transfer ______________, create new jobs, generate more tax $.

• Can be detrimental b/c they may be ___________, pay low wages to workers, export scarce natural resources,

+/or interfere w/ the development of local businesses.

End Section 4

• The 3 economic sectors

• The primary sector is the part of the economy producing goods from the ____________________.

• Ex. Farmers, miners, ranchers, fishermen, etc…

• The secondary sector is the part of the economy engaged in


• Ex. Factory workers, often called blue-collar workers.

• The tertiary sector is the part of the economy ______________.

• Ex. Teachers, cops, doctors, actors, mechanics, etc…

• Before the Industrial Revolution, most workers were in the ______ sector. Afterwards, more were in the _______ sector. W/ more recent technological advances occurring post-WWII requiring less manufacturing, most workers now work in the ______ sector (77% of Americans).





Furniture maker




• Occupational structure

• Occupations are categories of jobs that involve similar activities at _______________________.

• Ex. Teacher, cop, electrician, dental assistant, etc… - all involve similar training no matter where they work.

• While manufacturing jobs have been going overseas, the US has been gaining some jobs in ____________

__________. However, there are two concerns:

1. Many of the jobs being gained offer _______.

2. The new jobs require ______________ then those people have who used to work in


• Since the 1970s many major corporations have been downsizing (the process by which companies their

_______ workforce). To save $, they then their contingent employment (hiring of part-time, shortterm workers). Contingent workers receive lower pay + no benefits. Some believe that this trend is the gap b/w the haves + the haves nots + is causing workers to have ____________ in their management.

End Section 5

• Religion + sociology

Ch 14 – Religion

• A religion is a unified __________________ + practices concerned w/ sacred things.

• Sacred means “____” or set apart + given a special meaning that goes beyond immediate existence.

• Secular (or _______) refers to the nonsacred aspects of life. Not unholy, just


• What is sacred in one culture can be secular in others + ______________.

• What is sacred can ____________ over time + what is secular can become sacred.

• Sociologists approach religion as a ________

________ + focus on the social aspects of religion that can be observed + measured.

• Read p.492-93 “India’s Sacred Cow”

End Section 1

• Functionalism

+ religion

• Religion exists in some form in almost ______________.

• Evidence of religion can be traced back to 50,000 B.C.

• Emile Durkheim was the 1 st sociologist to look at religion

_____________ + wonder why religion can be found in so many societies. He concluded that societies used sacred symbols as a mirror for themselves, + that through religious rituals, people __________________ + remind themselves of their shared past + future existence.

• Other social functions of religion include:

• ___________ to the current social arrangements

– justifies social norms/ attitudes + makes them legitimate (to give _________________ to). It explains why some should have power or not, why we should do some things + not others, etc…

• Encourages a sense of ______ – provides a social order + causes us to work together (but can also divide a society).

• Provides a _____________________ – gives us a sense of place in the world + eternal significance to our short existence.

• Promotes a sense of belonging – helps us feel

___________ to others.

• The conflict theory + religion

• The conflict theory focuses on how religion works to discourage or encourage _______________.

• Karl Marx believed religion was the “_______________”.

People believed they shouldn’t do anything to go against their faith even if it kept them bad circumstances. He believed that religion was a tool for those in power to keep their power + that the workers should ______________.

• He saw religion as working against social change.

• Max Weber explained how the of __________ helped the of ________. He noticed that capitalism emerged in NW Europe + in the US. Some Protestant sects saw work as a ____________ which led to what Weber called the Protestant ethic (a set of norms + attitudes stressing hard work, thrift, + self-discipline). This came in large part from John Calvin’s beliefs that ______________ his chosen ones in this life, consumption beyond necessity is

_______, + that life + material goods should be used to

_____________. This led to the spirit of capitalism (the obligation to reinvest $ in business rather than spend it) + the growth of business.

• He saw _______ as possibly helping to cause social change.

• Symbolic interactionism

+ religion

• Peter Berger believed that when humans create religious traditions they are providing a cover of _______________ to lay over the __________. They use these meaning to guide everyday social interaction.

• They give people a way to identify what is ________ + what is not.

• They provide stability + security.

People are more likely to become religious in ________

_______ b/c religion can help provide them w/ a sense of certainty + relief (like the idea of an afterlife or affirmation that a decision made is the morally correct one).

End Section 2

• Religious organization

• In Western societies, most people practice religion through some _______________________.

• So religions can be organized by church, denomination, sect, + cult.

• Sociologists consider a church to be a life-encompassing religious organization to which ___________________ belong.

• Exists when a __________________ are closely intertwined.

• Ex. Italy centuries ago under the Catholic Church or England under the Church of England.

• When Americans talk about a “church” we are actually referring to a denomination, which is one of several religious organizations that most members of a society


• Denominations aren’t tied to the state, so membership is voluntary + _________________

_____________ is socially acceptable.

• A sect is a religious organization formed out of a desire to __________________ religious organization. They believe the current denomination has ______________ important beliefs or traditions.

• A cult is a religious organization whose characteristics _______

______________ existing religious traditions w/in a society.

• They either get their views from outside the society or create them from w/in.

• Many people associate cults w/ _____ beliefs + behavior but many cults aren’t.

• So why do people join cults? B/c they:

Provide a supportive community to help overcome loneliness + provide emotional ties. They often use ___________ when talking about members.

Emphasize immediate experience + emotional gratification. Religion is “___” rather than just being thought about.

Claim to offer something _______________ in an artificial world.

Extremist cults emphasize security through

_____________. Provides converts w/ feelings of certainty + safety.

Indicators of cults are if they require

_________ from family + friends, use of ____, severe punishment or psychological conditioning,

+/or claims of special knowledge ____________ can know.

• Religiosity • Ways in which people ________ their religious attitudes + behaviors in their everyday lives.

• There are 5 dimensions of religiosity:

1. _______ – what a person believes to be true.

2. ______ – religious practices people are expected to perform. They may be


3. Intellectual dimension – knowledge of holy or sacred ___________.

4. _________ – certain feelings attached to religious expression (ex. feeling close to the deity when praying).

5. _____________ – are the decisions + commitments people make due to their religious beliefs. These consequences may deal w/ private or public issues (ex. abstaining from sex before marriage + opposing abortion).

End Section 3

• Development of religion in the US

• The 1 st settlers to colonize what would become the US were looking for __________________

____________ + the Puritans believed that they would be a religious example to the world. This has led to the idea of American exceptionalism – the belief that the US is a special + unique example of liberty + democracy for the


• Despite this the founding fathers believed in separation of __________________.

• However, certain religious minorities have

___________ in America’s history.

• Religion has also influenced periods of

American history (ex. Antislavery +

Prohibition movements).

• Today, slightly less than ____ of Americans are

Protestant (particularly Baptist 16% + Methodist

8%). Catholics are 24% + Jews are 2%. The unaffiliated (atheist, agnostic, no opinion) make up about _____% of the population.

• Secularization in the US

• Secularization is the process through which the ___________________ over society.

• Ex. Education used to be provided primarily through clerics.

• Although it’s widely believed that religion is __________________ in the US, it is still highly religious when compared to other ____________________.

• There are now over ______ recognized denominations/sects + thousands of independent congregations in the US.

• Fundamentalism in the US

• Fundamentalism is the _____________________ + the rigid adherence to traditional religious beliefs, rituals, + doctrines.

• It has been on the in the US for the last 30 or so yrs.

• __________________ – Christian (including Catholics,

Protestants, Morons), Muslims, + Jews. However, in the

US it mostly involves ___________.

• Fundamentalists are politically ___________.

• Protestant fundamentalists in the US believe in the

_______________ of the Scriptures.

• Protestant fundamentalists aren’t _______________.

Denominations fundamentalism is predominately found in include Mormons, Baptists, + Jehovah’s Witnesses.

• Why is fundamentalism on the ?

• They offer ___________ in an uncertain world.

• They tend to be less formal + impersonal than


• They claim to offer a more purely sacred environment.

• The ________ has helped spread their message.

• Religion, social class,

+ politics

• Social class – on average, Presbyterians,

Episcopalians, + Jews are likely to be at _______ social classes; Catholics, Methodists, + Lutherans are likely to be in the _____; + Baptists are more likely to be at the _______ social classes.

• Upper classes tend to express their religiosity through _________________, church attendance, + observance of rituals.

Lower classes tend to express their religiosity through private prayer +


• Political affiliation – Jews + Catholics are more likely to be __________, while most Protestants denominations are more likely to be _________.

• Jews + Catholics have been discriminated against + are more likely to favor stronger separation of church + state. Protestants being in the majority are more likely to want to allow religion into ____________.

• Religion, science, + society

• Religion + science both examine humanity’s

___________________. Religion involves matters beyond human observation while science focuses on what can be observed.

• While many scientists are religious + many clerics support the field of science, sometimes there is ________ b/w the two.

• In the US, the separation of church + state has led to scientific explanations for

________________ while religious groups may teach their own interpretations w/in their organizations.

End Section 4

• Sports

Ch 15 – Sport

• A set of competitive activities in which winners + losers are determined by _______

_________ w/in a set of established ____.

• Teaches some of the ______________ of a society + promotes attachment to society

(cheering for the home team).

• In the US, it reflects our emphasis on


• Like many other aspects of society in the

US, women are 2 nd to men in power in sports.

• A sport subculture is a group w/ ________ roles, values, norms, + beliefs that is organized around a sport activity.

End Section 1

• Some contradictions in sports

• Although sports help teach + reinforce culture, there are many ____________ in sports. Examples include:

• Can ______________ social classes + racial/ethnic groups but may heighten barriers that separate groups.

• Can promote _______ by teaching the importance of following the rules but may tempt people to cheat due to their


• Can promote muscle strength, weight control, + endurance but may lead to the use of _______, excessive weight loss or gain + injuries.

• Can contribute to _______________ through scholarships but may take away $ from academics + emphasize athletics over academics.

• Functionalism

+ sports

• Functionalists believe sports help society work more smoothly. They:

• Teach basic beliefs, norms, + values.

• Promote a sense of ________


• Offer a safe release of ________

(physical + verbal).

• Encourages the _______________

_________ through hard work + discipline.

• But there are also dysfunctions. They:

• Desire to achieve can lead to

___________ + excessive violence.

• Encourage steroid use or extreme


• The conflict theory + sports

• Conflict theorists view sports are a social institution in which the ________

_________, manipulate, + coerce others.

• They emphasize the way sports mirror the unequal _________________ + $ in society.

• They argue that the unity produced by home teams is ____________.

• They debate the belief that sports help form _________________.

• Sportsmanship tends to the

____________ athletes become in sport systems. Ex. non-scholarship athletes show more sportsmanship that scholarship athletes + the many scandals pro-athletes have been involved in.

• Symbolic interactionism

+ sports

• Symbolic interactionists focus on symbols in sports + how they influence the development of ___________________

____________ of those involved.

• For ex. adults might teach hard work, fair play, __________, + winning, but these messages may be interpreted as

__________, toughness, + risky behavior.

End Section 2

• Sports + social mobility





Odds of a high school athlete playing pro




• College athletes as a whole are _______

_________ than college students who don’t participate in sports.

• Some people believe that sports are a social class escalator for __________.

Average career length in pros

1-7 yrs

4-6 yrs


½ yrs

• However others argue that this emphasis on success in sports is bad b/c it takes away attention from

______________. Minority children then often spend to much time + energy improving their athletic skills though they’re highly unlikely to become a professional athlete + then have __________________.

• Sports + sport ___________ can help minorities + other athletes gain access to a college education they might not have otherwise though.

• Sports + racism

• Stacking is the process of assigning minority players to __________________

(which often involve more __________


• Ex. Few black quarterbacks but many blacks in other less central positions.

These positions often have

__________ that cut those careers short.

• Although blacks appear to make as much or more $ than white pro-sports players, when

_________________ is accounted for, blacks must perform better than whites to avoid __________________.

• Minorities are also ________________ in positions of power w/in their sport (ex. coaches, owners, announcers, etc…)

• Sexism in sports

• Sexism in sports can be traced back all the way to the

_____________, where the few ________ who were athletic were depicted as not being attracted to or attractive by men.

• ___________ have traditionally discouraged females from playing sports. Female athletes were seen as more __________. Also, some used to believe that it would harm women’s health especially her ability to


• In 1972, Title IX was passed by the federal gov.’t requiring females have ______________ to sports – although interpreting this law has been __________.

• Currently the courts favor a ____________ of each gender to match the school’s population.

• It has also led a in women in ___________

____ in sports b/c as women’s sports gain more respect, men are more willing to take those positions.

• Women are very _________________ in pro-sports.

End Section 3