In George Orwell’s Animal Farm Propaganda: information aimed at positively or negatively influencing the opinions or behaviors of large numbers of people. Propaganda Techniques: Propaganda techniques and persuasive tactics are used to influence people to believe, buy, or do something. ***You should be able to identify and comprehend the following propaganda techniques and persuasive tactics*** 1. Name-calling (Ad hominem) - an attack on a person instead of an issue Textual Example: Squealer tells the animals to be glad they didn’t listen to Snowball’s windmill plan because he, “was no better than a criminal” (50). http://mycoignofvantage.wordpress.com/tag/adhominem/ 2. Bandwagon tries to persuade the reader to do, think, or buy something because it is popular or because “everyone” is doing it. Textual Example: The bleating of “four legs good, two legs bad” – singing the “Beasts of England” song. Appeals to group mentality 3. Red herring – an attempt to distract the reader or audience with details not relevant to the argument. Textual Example: “Never mind the milk, comrades!” cried Napoleon, placing himself in front of the buckets. “That will be attended to. The harvest is more important. Comrade Napoleon will lead the way […] The hay is waiting. AND When [Squealer] was arguing some difficult point, he had a way of skipping from side to side and whisking his tail which was somehow very persuasive 4. Testimonial attempts to persuade the reader by using a famous person to endorse a product or idea (for instance, the celebrity endorsement). Pop culture example: Subway commercials Textual Examples: When Boxer shares his personal maxims of “Napoleon is always right” and “I will work harder” (51). 5. Repetition attempts to persuade the reader by repeating a message over and over again. Example from the Text: The sheep bleating out “four legs good, two legs bad” and then “four legs good, two legs better” (118) 6. Sweeping generalization (stereotyping) makes an oversimplified statement about a group based on limited information Examples from the text: “All men are enemies. All animals are comrades” (7). “Man is the only real enemy we have. Remove Man from the scene, and the root cause of hunger and overwork is abolished forever” (5) 7. Circular argument states a conclusion as part of the proof of the argument. When Squealer tells the animals that Snowball was grazed with the bullet in the battle of the Cowshed as “part of the arrangement. I could show you this in his own writing if you were able to read it” (73). 8. Appeal to numbers, facts, or statistics attempts to persuade the reader by showing how many people think 9. Plain Folks – an appeal to audience by making the speaker or product seem ordinary or for the everyday person. Example from the Text: Comrade Napoleon 10. Transfer –words, images, or ideas with positive or negative connotations are used to suggest that the positive or negative qualities are associated with the product, person, or cause. Example from the text: “In glowing sentences he painted a picture of Animal Farm as it might be when sordid labour was lifted from the animals’ backs” (47).