• “I’m the kid on every
playground that is
always chosen last.”
What comes to mind
when you are asked ,
“What is your
philosophy of
• What will you teach?
• How will you teach it?
• How will you evaluate it?
Your philosophy will help determine your course
of action.
“99% of the kids you deal with
are great kids! The other 1% simply
need your love and understanding.”
• The study of the nature of knowledge and
existence and the principles of moral and
ethical value.
• The general principles of a field of study.
(Philosophy of education)
• Wisdom or insight applied to life itself.
• The philosophical teachings of a group.
Social Perspectives – The process of learning
how to function in society (families, school…)
• The Fundamentalist Perspective – sees society
as sharing a common set of values. This leads to
institutions such as families, schools, govt. &
religious bodies that promote social cohesion
• The Conflict Perspective – sees schools as places
where contending interest groups compete for
educational advantage. They look for potential
winners & losers when they look to change school
Roles of Schools in Society
Transmission of the general culture
Dissemination of knowledge
Preparation of the world of work
Promotion of social and group
• Encouragement of social change.
Philosophical Perspectives -Axiology
• Axiology focuses on questions of what ought to be
• Is there a particular standard of moral behavior
that you, the teacher, should emphasize? Many
students have concluded that life is not worth
living.Will you stress academics or moral behavior
• How should life be lived?
• Does life have any meaning?
• What is the highest good?
• What is moral & immoral?
• What is beauty?
• How should a person behave?
Philosophical Perspectives - LOGIC
• Logic deals with the relationships among ideas and
is used to differentiate between valid and fallacious
• Deductive reasoning – Make sure students have a
solid grasp of principles or ideas through example.
Direct instruction, advanced organizers, and lecture
are teaching strategies that are often used.
• Inductive reasoning – Gather a large number of
examples before instruction begins to represent the
principal you want to get across to learners. Inquiry
approaches & discovery learning are teaching
strategies used.
Educational Applications of
Philosophical Ideas
Be thinking – What will your own
personal philosophy of education
look like?
Dewey – Early 1900s
• Teacher - assists learner- is a facilitator emphasis on problem solving, not memorization
• Strategies-because knowledge is tentative,
students help plan what and how they will learn
• Curriculum - skills attainment – community
field trips
• Management - lots of freedom to choose
Human beings are good & someone who is
educated, has the insights to adapt to change
ESSENTIALISM – William Bagley (1941)
• Teacher - teaches basic skills, courses taught
separately, higher thinking skills encouraged,
competency testing, teachers character must be
outstanding; dates back to Ben Franklin “a can-do
attitude” Lots of lecture – impart information to
students – Students to learn & retain factual inform.
• Strategies - lots of paper and pencil, reading classics,
skill and drill - teacher authority – hard work &
• Curriculum - reading, writing, and math, science and
social studies in high school-don’t dilute with trivial
subjects-arts and humanities frills-not preparing for
• Management - student follows directions and behaves
appropriately – Do not prepare for citizenship & work
• Teacher - searching for truth and unchanging
principles, avid reader and writer, condemns
essentialists for memorizing what is always
changing-want mastery of lasting truths
• Strategies - stresses great works, art, literature,
music-small group discussions
• Curriculum-focus on literature, emphasis on
getting concepts in math, science, social studies.
Certain basic truths/concepts must be mastered
doesn’t want vocational training
• Management-behavior expected to be in a
rational manner. Came along after 1950
• Relatively recent model – has influenced
education less than the other basic
philosophies. Accountability &
measuring outcomes are not important.
• People should have freedom to make
choices and identify their own reasons for
existing. Each person must define truth,
beauty, right & wrong for himself.
• Sudbury Model – Schools place great
emphasis on personal freedom –
Learners shape their own experiences.
• Teacher - liberal thinker - challenges rules of
the school district – wants teacher to raise
issues, but not be a transmitter of knowledge.
• Strategies - students encouraged to solve social
problems-social reform
• Curriculum - heavily multicultural-leads
students to critically appraise all elements of
society • Management - liberal discipline
Want to improve the human condition through
reform – believe society has lost its way
• Sensitivity toward the varieties of individual
and cultural diversity
• Disposition and ability to collaborate
ethically and effectively with others
• Reverence for learning and seriousness of
personal, professional, and public purpose
• Respect for learners of all ages, with special
regard for children and adolescents
• Wide general knowledge and deep knowledge of
the content to be taught
• Knowledge and appreciation of the diversity
among learners
• Understanding what affects learning and
appropriate teaching strategies
• Interest in and ability to seek out informational,
technological, and collegial resources
• Contagious intellectual enthusiasm and courage
enough to be creative