TEACHING SIMPLE PAST TENSE BY USING SUBSTITUTION

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TEACHING SIMPLE PAST TENSE BY USING SUBSTITUTION CONCORD DRILL
TECHNIQUE AT THE FIRST YEAR STUDENTS OF SMA YPKKP CIJERAH BANDUNG
IN ACADEMIC YEAR 2012/2013
Sandi Maulana Abdillah
E-mail: [email protected]
English Education Study Program Language and Art Department
Sekolah Tinggi Keguruan dan Ilmu Pendidikan
(Stkip) Siliwangi Bandung
ABSTRACT
The objective of this study entitled “teaching simple past tense by using substitution concord drill technique
at the first year students of SMA YPKKP CIJERAH in academic year 2012/2013” was to find out whether
or not Substitution-Concord Drill Technique improves students’ simple past tense comprehension. This
research used one group pretest-posttest design and quantitative research method. The population of this
research was thirty one students of the first year of SMA YPKKP Cijerah and the sample of the research
was entire population. The instrument of this research was test and the data were collected by giving
written test to the students’ sample. The data were analyzed by using t-test formula. The results of this
research showed that: the mean score of pretest was 31.90 and the mean score of posttest was 42. The tobserved was 5.43 and the t-table with degree of freedom (df) 30 and level significance at 0.05 (5%) was
1.697. Based on the data above, the alternative hypothesis (Ha) of the research was accepted because tobserved was higher than t-table (5.43 > 1.697). It also means that teaching simple past tense by using
substitution concord drill technique was effective to improve the students’ comprehension in simple past
tense.
Key words: past tense, substitution concord drill technique.
The English language subject is a requirement in
senior high school aimed at student’s personal
development in the field of science, technology and
culture. It is hoped that the instruction of English in
this level of schooling will enable the students to row
as Indonesia citizens are expected to play an active
role in the national development. The purpose of
education according to the constitution of the
National Education system no. 2,1989, as mentioned
on chapter IX, article 37, which reads:
“ kurikulum di susun untuk mewujudkan tujuan
pendidikan Nasiona dengan memperhatikan tahap
perkembangan peserta didik dan kesesuaian dengan
lingkungan
hidup,
kebutuhan
pembangunan
Nasional, perkembangan ilmu pengetahuan dan
teknologi serta kesenian, sesuai dengan jenis dan
jenjang masing- masing satuan pendidikan”
Various measures and policies have been adopted in
an effort to improve the quality of English teaching.
In fact, students thought that English is one of the
weird things that came from their school. Because
they supposed that English lesson is difficult. Hence,
it is a big challenge for the teacher to make them
interested in learning English lesson especially in
learning grammar.
Many students can mention grammar rules, but they
have difficulties in applying them. They fail to grasp
A. BACKGROUND
As other language, English language has many parts.
One of its parts is grammar. Grammar is a description
of the structure of language and the way which
linguistics unit as words and phrases are combined to
produce sentences in the language. It usually takes
into account the meanings and function on this
sentence in the overall system of the language,
Richard et al (1985: 125). In Indonesia itself, English
language is learned as a foreign language. Therefore
the government includes English language in
education curriculum.
The latest curriculum which is being implemented
nowadays is school based curriculum (SBC) or
Kurikulum Tingkat Satuan Pengajaran (KTSP).
Puskur Balitbang Depdiknas (unnoted year) states
that in general, SBC has six important components
namely: 1) school vision and mission, 2) instructional
aim, 3) educational calendar, 4) the structure and
content of SBC, 5) syllabus, and 6) lesson plan
Suprijadi (2012: 23). It means that curriculum must
refer to the National Education Standard in order to
achieve National Education Goals. Then, the
curriculum is developed based on the schools’ need,
the potential of area, and the learners’ need.
1
the function and understanding appropriate context
taught to them. However in learning grammar
especially simple past tense, the students will face a
lot of difficulties such as the use of verbs,
differentiate between regular and irregular verbs,
pronunciation –ed ending and making right
sentences.
Based on the facts that the students lacked of
grammar comprehension, the writer is intended to use
substitution concord drill technique to improve the
students’ comprehension in grammar, especially in
improving simple past tense comprehension.
Substitution concord drill technique that is a
somewhat easier variation of the substitution drill,
but one that still requires active use of grammatical
pattern Byrne (1969:76). By drilling the students, it
will be easier for them to remember and learn; since
the more often English is repeated, the stronger the
habit and the greater learning will be achieved. As in
the process of a child for example, who learns his/her
mother tongue, a child always begins with hearing
first what his/her parents speak, then he/she tries to
speak afterward.
In accordance with Wirathama, et al. (2012: 5) drill
technique improved the students’ listening
comprehension in all aspects of micro skill types of
listening comprehension, such as recognition
intonation pattern, recognition sentence pattern,
recognition discourse marker and getting the
referential info. Moreover, drill technique mostly
improved the students’ listening comprehension in
recognizing intonation pattern, in which their ability
in that aspect was 38 % improved significantly.
Therefore, based on the explanation above, this
research was conducted at the first year students of
SMA YPKKP Cijerah Bandung in order to improve
their simple past tense comprehension through drill
technique. Hopefully this technique can give student
stimulant to make easier in learning simple past
tense.
exercise, activities, or devices used in the language
classroom for realizing lesson objectives.
Therefore, as a teacher we should know to deliver the
material suit with students’ need. It can help student
to comprehend easily. In teaching activities a teacher
needs some of facilities, that is curriculum or
syllabus. This will make teacher easier to arrange the
material that we be delivered. Brown (1994: 51)
states that curriculum or syllabus is design for
carrying out a particular language program. Features
include primary concern with a specification of
linguistic and subject-matter objectives, sequencing,
and materials so meet the needs a designated of
group learners in a defined context.
Based on the theory above, the writer tries to choose
substitution concord drill technique in teaching
grammar, especially in simple past tense.
2. Substitution Concord Drill Technique
According to Byrne (1969: 76) a somewhat easier
variation of the substitution drill, but that still
requires active use of grammatical pattern, is the
substitution- concord drill. The first step is to have
the students repeat a few examples of a given
sentence pattern such as the following:
The letter was there, but nobody noticed it.
I was there, but nobody noticed me.
The children were there, but nobody noticed them.
Your brother was there, but nobody noticed him.
You and I were there, but nobody noticed us.
As soon as the students can say the examples fluently
in imitation of the teacher, they are given only the
first few words (one of the italicized expressions) and
asked to reproduce the entire sentence. Matthew,
Spratt and Dangerfield (1991:210) Substitution drills
are slightly more interactive than repetition drill
because they usually give students practice in
changing a word or structure in response to a prompt
or cue from the teacher or another student. The
teacher’s prompt can be a whole sentence, a word, a
phrase, or a picture.
B. THEORETICAL FOUNDATION
1. Technique
Anthony (1963) in Richard and Rodgers (1999: 15 a
technique is implementational – that which actually
takes place in a classroom. It is a particular trick,
stratagem, or contrivance used to accomplish an
immediate objective. Technique must be consistent
with a method, and therefore in harmony with an
approach as well. According to the theory, technique
in teaching process is very important to supports the
teaching and learning activities process when the
teacher managing the classroom.
Brown (1994) states that technique is commonly
referred to other terms any of wide variety of
3. Definition of Grammar
Grammar is the system of language. People
sometimes describe grammar as the rule of language.
Actually the word grammar has several meanings and
description attempted by linguists. Different experts
define the word grammar differently. Jeremy Harmer
(2001:12) defines the term grammar as the
description of the ways in which the word can change
their form and can be combined into sentences in that
language. Whereas Cook and Cutter (1980:1) assume
that grammar is a set of rules by which people speak
and write.
In accordance with the statements above, it is clear
that grammar is absolutely needed in using language
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both written and spoken form. Hornby (1989:517)
defines grammar as the rules in a language for
changing the form of words and combining them into
sentences. In short grammar is something that people
can use to find their way in getting along with other
in using language.
to talk about an activity or situation that began and
ended at particular time in the past (E.g., yesterday,
last night, two days ago, in 1999). While Cook and
Sutter (1980:51) write that past tense are actions or
states that usually occurred or completed in the past.
Richard et al. (1985: 66-67), tense is relationship
between the form of the verb and time of the action
or state it. The term simple past tense can be
concluded as an action or activity that began and
ended in the past or precisely past experience.
In English, several verbs are not standing alone, it
must be helped by object, noun, adverb, adverb of
place and etc and it depends on the situation (future,
present, past). And this is the form of simple past
tense.
Positive form:
Subject + Verb II + object + adverb
Negative form:
Subject+ did + not + verb I + object + adverb
Interrogative form:
Did + subject + verb I + object + adverb?
4. Importance of Learning Grammar
The importance of grammar as stated by Nasr
(1978:52) is that grammar is a part of any language.
Grammar and language cannot be separated.
Consequently, if language has no grammar, it will
never be spoken, because people will be able to either
use and learn a language if the language has its
pattern as the grammatical rules. Grammar can help
us to learn a language more quickly and efficiently.
This reasonable since studying grammar as
something that tells us how to speak and write
correctly. When a second language learner
understands the grammar as a system of language, he
will know how the language works. As a result, he
will make sentences or statements grammatically
correct and meaningful to other people.
7. Form of Simple Past Tense
a. Regular Verb
Regular verb are verbs whose simple past tense and
past participle are formed by adding “ed / d” to the
infinitive.
b. Irregular Verb
Based on Oxford dictionary irregular verb is verb not
formed the normal way. The reference list of
irregular verb as follows:
5. English Tenses
In general tense is a system which we use to refer to
time; past, present, and future. Many languages use
tenses to talk about time. In English, we use tense as
a method that we use to indicate time. Other
languages may have no tenses, but of course they can
still about time using different methods. Wishon and
Burks (1980: 192) state that tense means time.
However, it should be pointed out that time in
relation to concept that exists in the mind of the
speakers, reader, or listener. Hornby (1989:1324)
assume that tense is any of the forms of a verb that
may be used to indicate the time of the action or state
express by the verb. In line with Hornby that says
tense is verb form that shows time, Frank (1972:47)
states that tense is special verb endings or
accompanying auxiliary verb signaling the times an
event takes.
There are sixteen English tenses and this research
focus on simple past tense. The reason to choose
those tense is because before mastering simple past
tense, students should remember and know the word
changing of simple past tense. Without mastering the
word changing, students will confuse where this
words comes from. Simple past tense is one
complicated tenses in English grammar, because it
has many discussions.
9. Teaching Activities of Grammar
Since this stage is very important, a teacher should
know are salient features. According to Harmer,
(1998: 16), a good presentation has a number of
characteristics, namely: clear efficient, lively, and
interesting, appropriate, and productive. Having
understood good characteristics of presentation, a
teacher should master the procedure in the
presentation stage. Based on Heni in her book,
English for teacher (2012) the procedure includes the
following points:
a. Classroom management includes teacher’s voice,
teacher’s instructions, and teacher questions must
be clear so the students understand about the
explanations.
b. Greeting. A teacher has to start the lesson with
greeting expressions, such as good “morning
everybody, good morning guys and etc.”
c. Prayer.
d. Checking student’s attendance.
e. Introducing yourself, if in the first meeting.
f. Reviewing the last lesson
g. Giving instructions.
h. Inviting student’s active participation.
6. Definition of simple past tense
The past tense indicates definite events happened in
the past. There are many definitions about past tense.
According to Azar (2003:39) the simple past is used
3
i.
j.
k.
l.
Presenting the lesson.
Doing classroom activities.
Checking student’s understanding
Finishing the lesson: summarizing and reviewing
the lesson
m. Talking about the next lesson and homework.
one to draw appropriate meaningful, and useful
inferences, and it is reliable to the extent that
whatever that measures, it measures consistently.
4. Research population
According to Crowl (1996: 15) population are groups
consisting of all people to whom a researcher wishes
to apply the findings study Burn (1994: 62)
population is an entire group of people or objects or
events which all have at least one characteristic in
common, and must be defined specifically and
unambiguously. In this study the writer chose the
first year students of SMA YPKKP Cijerah Bandung,
exactly on class X with the total students are 31
(thirty one) students as population.
C. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
1. Research Design
Research is one way to know and identifying the data
will that be researched. The writer used the research
to identify the data and know the result of the study.
As described by Crowl (1996: 6):Research is used to
denote the systematic process of identifying a
problem, reviewing the literature dealing with a
problem, developing one or more research hypothesis
or questions related to the problem, collecting data by
means of empirical investigation, analyzing the data,
and interpreting the results of the investigation.
According to Crowl (1996: 290), the one group
pretest-posttest design differs from the one shot case
study in that the questionnaire is administered twice:
once as a pretest (O1) before students start with the
word process (X) and again as a posttest (O2) after
students have used the word processor.
Pretest (O1) X Posttest (O2)
In this research the writer chose one group pretestposttest design to find out the students’ simple paste
tense comprehension whether before or after
treatment.
5. Sample
According to crowl (1996: 15) samples are subsets of
people used represent populations. Hornby (2000:
131) sample is number of people or thing are taken
from a large group used in test to provide information
about the group. According to Burn (1994:63), a
sample is any part of population regardless of
whether it is representative or not.
The sampling technique used in this study subject is
not randomly assigned, so the writer would take the
sample was entire population.
6. Research data collection
a. Pretest
The students were given questions both multiple
choice and essay in the first meeting. Timing is about
45 minutes which 20 multiple choice and 16 essays.
2. Research method
Research is a way of knowing that emphasizes
systematic investigation Crowl (1996). Moreover, he
said that the terms research denotes the systematic
process of identifying a problem, review the literature
dealing with the problem, developing one or more
research hypotheses or question related to the
problem, collecting data by means of empirical
investigations, analyzing the data, and interpreting
the result of the investigation.
In this research the writer used the quantitative
method. According to Crowl (1996 : 10), quantitative
research methods are used to examine questions that
can be answered by collecting and statistically
analyzing data that are in numerical form.
b. Posttest
After giving some treatments and exercises to the
experimental group in a certain period of time,
posttest was carried out by giving the students
questions same as pretest.
D. FINDINGS AND DISCUSSIONS
1. Data of the Research
The data student’s scores of the first year SMA
YPKKP Cijerah was obtained by doing pretest and
posttest as follow:
Table 4.1
Pretest and Posttest Students’ Score of SMA
YPKKP Cijerah
Name of
Posttest
Pretest
No Students
1 AS
30
18
2 AKS
31
27
3 AB
37
29
4 AK
35
35
5 AJ
47
37
6 AM
32
17
3. Research instrument
In this research the writer used written test both
multiple choice and essay as instrument. Gronlound
(1985: 5) test is an instrument or systematic
procedure for measuring a sample of behavior.
(Answer the question “how well does the individual
perform in comparison with others or in comparison
with a domain of performance tasks?”). Crowl (1996:
101) a test is valid to the extent that its scores permit
4
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
DSR
DH
ES
FL
FN
FA
HH
JA
MMA
NJ
NR
NH
RA
RA
SP
SUF
SDS
SA
SMR
TR
WA
YR
YS
YNS
ZN
Sum
56
45
43
42
33
84
47
43
56
23
36
33
33
44
54
53
37
32
40
34
34
41
54
45
48
1302
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
37
40
35
35
37
47
12
25
33
23
25
22
36
37
37
44
33
31
34
37
30
33
23
40
40
989
∑𝑋
S=√
Posttest
Pretest
30
31
37
35
47
32
56
45
43
42
33
84
47
18
27
29
35
37
17
37
40
35
35
37
47
12
18
23
0
11
11
-3
7
17
9
4
1
6
-3
4
8
31
5
8
313
324
529
0
121
121
9
49
289
81
16
1
36
9
16
64
961
25
64
6373
2
2 − (∑ 𝑥)
𝑛
𝑛−1
6373−
S= √
(313)2
31
31−1
6373− 3160.29
30
S= √
3212.71
30
S= √
S= √107.09 = 10.35
So the standard deviation is 10.35
 The last calculation is t-test:
Crowl (1996:179)
Table 4.2
The Comparison of the Test Result between
Posttest and Pretest
No
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
25
33
23
25
22
36
37
37
44
33
31
34
37
30
33
23
40
40
989
c. The Standard Deviation
The standard deviation is amount of spread that the
scores exhibit amount some central tendency measure
usually the mean. Here are some steps to get standard
deviation. To calculate the standard deviation of the
result of average score, the writer used the formula as
follows Crowl (1996: 140):
 Standard Deviation
b. The Comparison of the Test Result
This column includes list the difference (D) between
pretest and posttest and list the squares of difference
score (D2) to help counting of standard deviation and
t-test value.
Difference
(D)
12
4
8
0
10
15
19
5
8
7
-4
37
35
43
56
23
36
33
33
44
54
53
37
32
40
34
34
41
54
45
48
1302
Based on the data in table 4.2 the writer calculated
the result ∑ 𝐷 = 313 and ∑ 𝐷 2 = 6373
a. The Mean of Each Test
Mean is average of the students’ score. It is simply
the sum of the scores (∑ 𝑥) by ne number of students
(N). The result is: the mean of pretest is 31.90 and
the mean of posttest is 42
Name of
Students
AS
AKS
AB
AK
AJ
AM
DSR
DH
ES
FL
FN
FA
HH
JA
MMA
NJ
NR
NH
RA
RA
SP
SUF
SDS
SA
SMR
TR
WA
YR
YS
YNS
ZN
Sum
𝑡=
̅
𝐷
(∑ 𝐷)2
2
√∑ 𝐷 − 𝑁
𝑁(𝑁 − 1)
Square
(D2)
144
16
64
0
100
225
361
25
64
49
16
1369
1225
𝑡=
𝑡=
10.10
√6373 − 3160.29
930
𝑡=
10.10
(313)2
√6373 − 31
31 (31 − 1)
𝑡=
10.10
√3.45
10.10
𝑡 = 5.43
1.86
The result t= 5.43 indicated that there was a
difference of degree. Then to complete the result of
the research, the writer found out the degree of
freedom (dƒ) with the formula:
5
dƒ = N-1
dƒ =31-1
dƒ = 30
The critical value of t-table at the 0,05 level of
significance for this degree of freedom 5% from 30
was 1.697
The result of the data by using the formula above
shows that the coefficient is 5.43 it means that there
was a significance increase after using substitution
concord drill technique.
a. Teacher should be creative in applying a
technique in the school. They have to choose
wisely by considering students’ need and ability.
b. “Repetition is the mother of skill” so if you want
to improve your skill you should learn
continually and keep patient.
c. Using English at least 60% when learning and
teaching process in order to students get familiar
with English.
d. The key point to master something is learning
deeply, the same as learn English if we want to
master it we have to learn deeply by repetition
more and more.
D. Testing the Hypothesis and Discussion
The data analysis proves that the mean students’
score of pretest is 31.90; meanwhile, their mean score
of posttest after being taught by using substitution
concord drill technique is 42. The t observe is 5.43
and the Degree of freedom (Df) value from 30 in
level of significance at 5% is 1.697
Therefore, based on the data above, the writer
concludes that the alternative hypothesis is accepted
because the t observe is higher than t-table
(5.43>1.697). The hypothesis of this research, that
substitution concord drill technique is effective to be
used in teaching. That substitution concord drill
technique influenced students’ comprehension in
simple past tense.
According to the analysis of the data, the writer infers
that teaching simple past tense by using substitution
concord drill technique is more effective to improve
students’ comprehension. It can be seen from the
students’ score of the mean which higher than the
other.
BIBLIOGRAPHY
Azar, Betty schrampfer. (1985). Fundamental of
English grammar.
Byrne, Don. (1969). English Teaching exracts.
London: Longman group Limited.
Brown. Douglas H. (1994). Teaching By Principles.
Prentice Hall Regent
Brown. Douglas H. (2000). Principles Of Language.
New Jersey: Prentices Hall Regents.
Carter, Ronal and Nunan, David.(2001) The
Cambridge Guide To Teaching English To
Speakers Of Others Language. UK: Cambridge
university press.
Crowl, Thomas K. (1996). Fundamental Of
Education Research. USA: Brown & Mark.
David Allen. Edward and Valette Rebecca .M (1977)
classroom techniques: foreign languages and
English as a second language. New york :
Harcourt brace Jovanovich. Inc.
Hartono, Heni. (2012). English For Teacher
Panduan Gampang Mengajar Dalam Bahasa
Inggris Untuk Para Guru. Yogyakarta: Kalarana
Press.
Hazera Putra, Wirathama. et al. (2012) Improving
The Students’ Listening Comprehension Through
Drill Technique In The First Grade Students Of
Smpn 2 Bandar Lampung. Bandar Lamupng:
lamung university.
Richard, J.et.al. (1985). Longman Dictionary Of
Applied Linguistic. London : longman
The constitution of the national education system
(1989), first edition, c.v suro menggolo, Jakarta
Wishon, George. Burks,Julia. (1980). Let’s write
English. New york : Litton education publishing.
www.en-wikipedia.org/wiki/simple_past_(english)
E. CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS
1. Conclusions
The writer would like to describe some conclusions
based on the fact and experience in the research:
a. By repetition, step by step students’
comprehension would improve.
b. Substitution concord drill technique can help
improving students’ skill include their
pronunciation, grammar, listening or even their
writing.
c. Based on the research findings, the t-count is
5.43. And it is higher than t-table needed 1.697.
It means that substitution concord drill technique
is effective for teaching simple past tense in
SMA YPKKP Cijerah Bandung.
2. Suggestions
The writer would give some suggestions, hopefully
would be useful for every teacher or the reader.
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