The nature pf prebiotics and the impact of prebiotics/probiotics on

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The nature of prebiotics and
the impact of
prebiotics/probiotics on gut
health
OSAMA O. IBRAHIM, PH.D.
CONSULTANT BIOTECHNOLOGY
GURNEE IL. 60031-USA
[email protected]
Agenda

Probiotics and its benefits.

Probiotics microorganisms

Prebiotics and its benefits.

Chemical structure of some prebiotics.

Inulin, oligofructos, FOS and GOS.

The definition of synbiotics .

Microencapsulation.

Probiotic market.
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Probiotics
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
Probiotics are viable bacteria which colonize in
the large intestine and provide health benefits to
the host.

Probiotics also colonize in the upper part of the
intestine and prevent the adhering of pathogens
to the intestinal tract (competitive exclusion).

Probiotics also help in food digestion and
improve immune response.
Probiotoc Microorganisms
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
There are numerous probiotic microorganisms:
1.
Fermented foods: Lactobacillus rhamnosus,
Lactobacillus reuteri, Lactobacillus casei,
Lactobacillus acidophilus and bifidobacteria.
2.
Investigated: Escherichia coli Nissle 1917,
Enterococcus faecium SF68, and the probiotic
yeast Saccharomyces boulardii.
Benefits
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
Maintaining healthy digestion and friendly bacteria
level.

Assisting with digestive disturbance (e.g. bloating,
flatulence, diarrhea, constipation, poor digestion).

Maintaining a healthy-immune system and energy
level.

Supporting the gut during and after antibiotics
treatment.

Maintaining healthy liver function.

Supporting clear healthy skin.
Prebiotics
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
Prebiotics is a general term to chemicals that
induce the growth and the activity of commensal
microorganisms that contribute to the well-being of
the host.

Its function is in the gastrointestinal tract, where
prebiotics can support probiotics growth and alter
the distribution of organisms in the gut microbiome.

Prebiotics can also function in other areas of the
body as well.
Type of prebiotics
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
Prebiotics are classified as soluble fiber.

It is the type of fibers that our gut flora can
actually consume and ferment.

These type of soluble fibers are:
1.
Inulin and oligofructose.
2.
Fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS).
3.
Galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS).
4.
Other oligosaccharides.
Polysaccharides
Oligosaccharides
Polysaccarides
(Inulins and Oligofructose)

Inulins belong to a class of dietary fibers
known as fructans.

Inulins are a group of soluble fibers
naturally produced by many types of
plants, industrially extracted from chicory.

Oligofructose belongs to a subgroup of
inulin. It's found in various vegetables and
plants, including onions, bananas, garlic,
chicory and wheat
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Innulin
Fructose polymer B2-1
DP 60
Oligo fructose
Fructose polymer B2-1
DP 10
Oligosaccharides




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Oligosaccharides are important group of polymeric
carbohydrates that are found in all living organisms.
Oligosaccharides composed of 2 to10 monosaccharide residues.
These mono-saccharide's linked together by glycoside
bonds.
The discovery of enzymes helps in the production of
oligo-saccharides with high yield and coast effective.
Oligosaccharides Substrates
Enzymatic process
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Oligosaccharides
Substrate

Fructo-oligosaccharide
Sucrose

Galacto-oligosaccharide
Lactose.

Malto-oligosaccharide
Starch.

Iso-malto-oligosaccharide

Xylo-oligosaccharide
Xylan.

Soy-oligosaccharide
Soy.
Starch.
-
Oligosaccharides
properties
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Low sweetness intensity (1/3 of sucrose).
 Highly soluble than sucrose.
 Zero calorie (calorie free).
 Heat stable (doesn't degrade by heating process)
 Resistance to hydrolysis by digestive enzymes.
 Hydrolyze in high acid environment.
 Non-cariogenic (inhibit the growth of
Streptococcus mutans).

Oligosaccharides
general benefits
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• Prebiotic (enhance befidus bacteria in colon).
• Increase digestion of lactose metabolism.
• Increase mineral absorption.
• Increase HDL/LDL ratio.
• Decrease serum lipids and blood cholesterol.
• Decrease blood pressure.
• Decrease glycemic response.
• Decrease fecal PH, toxic, and carcinogenic metabolites.
Oligosaccharides
Legal status

Oligosaccharides cannot be labeled as sugars
or carbohydrates.

They are food ingredients not food additives.

Can be applied without restrictions.
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Fructo-oligosaccharides
(FOS)
GF
Sucrose
O-α-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-2)β-D-fructofuranoside
Substrate
products
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Fructo-oligosaccharide
(FOS)

Naturally occurring (fruits and vegetable).

Built from sucrose (D-glucose and D-fructose).
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G- (F)n-F
Enzymatic reaction:
- GF +GF
GF2 (1-Kestose)
- GF +GF2
GF3 (Nestose)
- GF + GF3
GF4 (fructosyl-nestose)
By-product:
- Free glucose (process enzyme inhibitor)
Fracto-oligosaccharides
products of enzymes


Enzymes:
- Fructosyltransferase (EC 2.4.1.9).
- B-fructofuranosidase (EC.3.2.1.26).
Microbial source:
- Aureobacidium pullulans.
- Aspergillus niger.
- Fusarium Sp.
- Arthrobacter sp.
- Lactobacillus vulgalicus
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Galacto-Oligosaccharides 17
(Substrate)
Galcto-oligosaccharides
(GalOS)



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Naturally occurring in milk products.
It is one of the major oligosaccharide in Japan.
It is built from lactose(D-glucose and Dgalactose).
G-(Gal)n-Gal
% of mixture
G-Gal
G-(Gal)2
G-(Gal)3
G-(Gal)4
di-saccharide
33 %
tri-saccharide
39 %
tetra-saccharide 18 %
penta-saccharide 7 %
Galacto-oligosaccharides
(GalOS)
Enzyme
Lactose + Lactose
GalOS + G
G-Gal, G-(Ga)2, G-(Gal)3, G(Gal)4
Process by-product:
- Glucose (enzyme inhibitor in the process).
- Galactose (galactocymia in the blood)
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GalOS Production Enzyme


Enzyme name:
- B-galactosidase (EC 3.2.1.22).
(Also known by the name lactase)
- B-galactosyl transferase (EC 2.4.1.134)
Microbial source:
- Aspergillus niger.
-
Aspergillus oryzae.
Kluyveromycin lactis.
Kluyveromycin Fragili.
Bacillus circulans.
Streptococcus thermophilus.
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Synbiotics
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
the United Nations Food & Agriculture
Organization (FAO) recommends that the term
"synbiotic" be used only if the net health benefit is
synergistic

Synbiotic concept was first introduced as
“mixtures of probiotics and prebiotics that are
beneficially to the host.
Protecting Probiotic
Bacteria
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
Probiotic bacteria play an important role in promoting and
maintaining human health.

In order, to produce health benefits probiotic strains should
be in a viable form during: (1) its shelf life until consumption
and (2) maintain its high viability throughout the
gastrointestinal tract.

Experimental data indicated free probiotic cells have a
poor survival rate.

Maintaining probiotics in a viable form (living cells) is the
must approach.

Develop a physical barrier for probiotics to be protected
from adverse environmental conditions.
Protecting Probiotic
Bacteria
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Microencapsulation
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
The microencapsulation techniques enhanced viability
of Probiotics in food products as well as in the
gastrointestinal tract.

microencapsulation is a process to entrap active
agents (probiotic/prebiotic) within a carrier material
and convert them into a powder form for convenient
use.

microencapsulation prevent these microorganisms
from multiplying in food that would otherwise change
their sensory characteristics

In addition, microencapsulation can promote
controlled release and optimize delivery to the site of
action.
Micoencapsulation
A technology to Protect Probiotic Bacteria
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Materials used for
Microencapsulation



Various types of encapsulating materials
are used for the process.
Namely, alginate, chitosan, carrageenan,
gums (locust bean, gellan gum, xanthan
gum, etc.), gelatin, whey protein, and
starch.
The selection of any material depends on
(1) its capsule forming capability, (2) its
strength, (3) its enhancing viability of
probiotics, (4) its cheapness, (5) its
availability, and (6) biocompatibility.
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Microencapsulation
Techniques
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The techniques are divided into two parts:
(1) Encapsulation process.
(2) Drying process (freeze drying , spray drying , fluidized bed drying ).
Encapsulation Process
Extrusion Technique
Emulsion Technique
Probiotics market
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
Food & beverages dominated the application market
and accounted for over 80% of the total probiotics
market.

Asia Pacific emerged as the most dominant regional
market, accounting for over 50% of the total market
share. This owing to the fact that the concept started
in Japan.

The global market for probiotics is expected to reach
$ 52.34 billion by 2020.

Asia Pacific is also expected to be the fastest growing
market.
Probiotics market
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
In the United States, probiotics are available as
dietary supplements (capsules, tablets, and
powders) and in dairy foods (such as yogurts
with live active cultures).

Probiotics for human consumption accounted
for over 90% of the total market,

probiotics have made significant growth in the
animal feed industry and are expected to grow.
Conclusion




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Growing consumer awareness regarding gut
health has pushed the demand for supplements
and dietary products.
This awareness has tremendous reflect on
probiotics consumption.
Probiotics expected to play a critical role in
market development over the next years.
Labeling and regulations, especially in the U.S.
and European Union, are also expected to have
significant impact on market growth.
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Thank You for your
attention
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