the study of the interactions among
organisms and their relationships with the
physical environment
no organism exists in isolation
is ALL the members of a species inhabiting
a given location
is all the interacting populations in an area
the living community and the physical
environment functioning together as a
stable system
abiotic + biotic = ecosystem
the portion of the Earth in which life exists
• composed of many ecosystems
1. population 2. community 3. ecosystem 4. biosphere
B. Ecosystems
Self-sustaining if
1. There is a constant source of energy such as sunlight
and organisms who can use that energy to make food
2. There is a recycling of materials between organisms
and their environment. This is primarily accomplished
by the action of decomposers such as bacteria and
fungi. Without decomposers, materials in dead bodies
would not be available to other organisms.
Define ecology.
 Define population, and give an example.
 Define community, and give and example.
 Define ecosystem, and give an example.
 What is the biosphere?
 Arrange the red terms above in order from smallest to
 What is the memory visual for a “self-sustaining
 Explain the 3 requirements for a self-sustaining
2 Components of an Ecosystem:
Abiotic & Biotic Factors
Abiotic Factors are non-living like
chemicals and physical factors
Examples include
intensity of sunlight
temperature range
type of soil
availability of space
pH (acidic/basic/neutral)
Limiting Factors
Abiotic factors can act as limiting factors which
means they determine which types of organisms
can live in an environment
• if temperatures are low, only certain species of plants and animals
can survive (no flamingos and palms)
• bodies of water must have a high amount of oxygen for some
species of fish (such as trout) to survive
• salt limits the types of organisms that exist in oceans and coastal
areas (freshwater vs saltwater fish)
Biotic Factors
Biotic factors are living things and their interactions
Define abiotic, and give 4 examples of abiotic factors.
 Define limiting factors, and give 3 examples.
 Define biotic factors, and give 4 examples.
 Describe 3 interactions in the ecosystem below.
Just for Fun