DATA ACQUISTION AND SIGNAL PROCESSING Lecture Introduction to Opamps & Multisim Dr. Tayab Din Memon Objectives To introduce the amplifier and its Transfer Characteristics. Opamp Ideal Characteristics of Opamp. Differential Mode of Opamp. Power of Negative Feedback Opamp Modes of Operation Definition, Internal Architecture, Notation, and its Package. Inverting Non-Inverting Differential Session-II Lab Work Simulation of Modes of Opamp. Amplifier? Why do we need to amplify signals? PHYSICAL PHENOMENA SENSOR SIGNAL CONDITIONING ANALOG TO DIGITAL CONVERSION DIGITAL OUTPUT To increase level of signals. Amplifier-Transfer Characteristics Transfer Characteristic is the relationship between input and output voltages The level of signal amplification is called the Gain, Av, and is the slope of the amplifier transfer characteristics. Input voltage is Vi Output voltage is Vo How do we build an amplifier? Discrete Devices, Transistors, Resistors, Capacitors. Attractive Solution Operational Amplifiers (Op-Amp) Use of the Integrated Circuits – Inexpensive, Easy to use, and readily available. How Opamp can be Defined? The op-amp is a high gain dc amplifier that has high input impedance and low output impedance. Note: Op-amps are analog, rather than digital devices, although they are used in many digital instrument. DC Amplifier – An amplifier that is capable of amplifying dc voltages and slowly varying voltages. Op-Amp Definition An operational amplifier (op-amp) is a DC-coupled (?)high-gain electronic voltage amplifier with a differential input and, usually, a single-ended output. An op-amp produces an output voltage that is typically hundreds of thousands of times larger than the voltage difference between its input terminals [source: Wikipedia]. DC Coupled Direct coupled refers to coupling between stages of an amplifier and coupling of the output stage to the load. The reason for coupling devices between stages is to accommodate the different DC biases needed by each stage. Normally you can't just connect the collector output of one stage to the base input of another identical stage, since collector and base operate at very different voltages. So an interstage transformer or capacitor provides DC isolation between stages while passing the audio. Direct-coupled interstage designs often use complementary stages; a PNP transistor drives an NPN transistor, etc. This makes it much easier to obtain bias compatibility between stages. See ref, figure 2.5. Direct output coupling is used to eliminate the nonlinearity, phase-shift and limited frequency response of a transformer or capacitor. The drawback is the possibility of applying a DC bias to the load. Direct output coupled amplifiers usually have a bias nulling adjustment which may need occasional adjustment. Internal Structure of Opamp. Op-amp Notation +Vcc v- v+ - vVO + v0 v+ + -Vcc The Opamp has minimum five terminals: Two Signal Input Terminals: +v and –v One Output terminal vo Two dc Power Supply Terminals +Vcc and –Vcc Opamp Packages IC Package Pin Configuration Opamp uA741 present in 8pin Dip IC. Also available in different size pins i.e. 16 also. Opamp Transfer Characteristics….. For example…… For different inputs and respective outputs the table is provided: S.No. +Vin -Vin Vd Output 1 5 3 2 + 2 -5 -7 2 + 3 -3 -2 -1 - 4 3 5 -2 - n first and second +Vin is more positive then –Vin so Output will be + saturated. In third and fourth –Vin is more positive then +Vin so Output will be - saturated. Opamp Saturation ……….. Input Signal 30v pk-pk. Output Signal 30V pk-pk Gain 1,000,000 OpAmp Saturates at 10V Power of Negative Feedback Vo Vi Advantages and disadvantages of Negative Feedback: Less Noise, Less Disturbance, High Bandwidth Gain is decreased Feedback Figure: Negative Feedback Opamp Modes of Operation Inverting Mode Noninverting Mode Differential Mode Inverting Mode Rf +Vcc R vv+ AC - v0 + -Vcc Non-Inverting Mode Rf +Vcc R vv+ - v0 + -Vcc AC Differential Mode +Vcc vv+ - v0 + -Vcc AC AC Voltage Follower +Vcc vv+ - v0 + -Vcc AC SESSION II LAB WORK All tasks given in the Handout should be completed Introduction to MultiSim Multisim is fully featured SPICE schematic capture and simulation tool used for circuit design, simulation, and in combination with Ultiboard for layout of custom PCBs. Design of an amplifier with a gain 10. TASK-I Design an amplifier with gain of 10? Mode choice is open!! Ok! Design using Inverting mode. In inverting mode Voltage gain is ratio of Feedback Resistance to Input Resistance. Vo/Vi= -(Rf/Ri). So Select Rf=10KΩ and Ri=1KΩ, then voltage gain will be 10. HERE IS THE SOLUTION!! Inverting Amplifier with Gain 10. Rf=10K +Vcc R=1K v v+ AC - v0 + -Vcc 1V/1KHz WHAT DIFFERENCE DID YOU OBSERVE IN TWO OUTPUTS? ANSWER? Saturation Due to input voltage increase. Repeat same Task with Non-Inverting Amplifier. In Non-inverting mode Voltage gain is: 1+Rf/Ri. So if we select Rf=4.7KΩ then Ri=0.52KΩ ~0.51K Ω (because 0.51K Ω is a standard Resistor). If we place these values then Output of the Circuit should be 10. HERE IS SOLUTION Voltage Follower Simulated Result Summary Note that in Inverting and Non-Inverting Opamp modes, feedback is – ve. The only difference is that; input is applied at different terminals. Output is 1800 out of phase with input in Inverting whereas in Non-Inverting Output is in phase with Input.