PERFORMANCE NUTRITION Are You Ready?

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PERFORMANCE NUTRITION
Are You Ready?
Jorie Janzen, RD
IOC Dipl Sport Nutr (in progress)
SMCM, CSCM, CDM, DC
Objectives
 Gain/update knowledge of sports
nutrition tools and resources
 Keep up-to-date on current evidenced
based sport nutrition resources
 Develop/strengthen skills in nutrition
and make practical recommendations
for athletes and active people
ATHLETES WANT TO KNOW…
 Training diets
 Fluid schedule
 Pre, during & post-competition
nutrition
 Meal timing & spacing
 Eating “on the go”
 Menu planning strategies
 Injury prevention
 LBM gain/fat loss
 Dietary supplements/Ergogenic
aids
 Reliable nutrition resources
OUTLINE
 Energy Systems (very brief overview)
 Training & Nutrition related Performance
Goals
 Assessing Energy Needs
 Macro & Micronutrient Needs
 Training Diet
 Fluids & Hydration
 Dietary Supplements and Ergogenic Aids
 Case Study
 Q&A
Energy Systems
 How energy is stored & transferred for
Physical Movement
 Diet, genetics/physique, physical
conditioning, type/duration & intensity of
exercise determine energy system used
 Phosphagen (ATP & CP) System
 (up to 6 seconds)
 Anaerobic Glycolysis (Lactic Acid System)
 (up to 1 – 3 minutes)
 Aerobic System (Kreb’s Cycle & electron
transport…)
WHY DO ATHLETES TRAIN?
 Improve
 FITNESS
 ATHLETIC PERFORMANCE
 maybe HEALTH
 Become more efficient with:
 Restoring ATP-CP faster
 Storing more energy/glycogen
 Overall aerobic fitness (cardiovascular)
WHY ATHLETES FATIGUE?
 Lactic Acid
 high concentration of H+ build up
 Hypoglycemia
 Low energy availability, blood sugar drops
 Depleted Muscle Glycogen
 Peripheral fatigue
 eat at 6pm, go to bed early, get up for early run
but can’t train
 Dehydration
 Decreased cardiac output, heat tolerance,
increased glycogenolysis
 Anemia
 Not enough oxygen to get to the working tissue
PRINCIPLES OF TRAINING
You Know This…
 F.I.T.T. training variables




Frequency
Intensity
Time
Type
 Overload – change one or more FITT variables to
continue to improve fitness and performance
 Periodization – 1 year planned training program
divided into phases or cycles to work on specific
fitness/performance goals
TYPES OF SPORTS
 Strength & Power
 Tennis, Soccer, Gymnastics, Volleyball, Speed Skating,
Weight Lifting, Boxing, Martial Arts, Rowing, Figure
Skating, Dance (ballet), Hockey, Track & Field
 Endurance
 Cross Country Skiing, Marathon, Triathlon, Distance
Swimming, Adventure Sports, Weekend Tournaments
(vball, basketball, hockey), Stop & Go Sports over time,
Long hours of training (all sports), Training >20-30
hours/week
 Judged Sports
 Gymnastics, Sync Swimming, Jockey
The type of training determines nutritional needs along with
the type of sport.
NUTRITION PLAN DEPENDS ON
TRAINING & GOALS
 Training routine
 Competition routine
 Limiting factors
 long drive, food avoidance, food availability

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Personal goals
Medical concerns
Therapeutic nutrition concerns – celiac, DM
Lifestyle
 student, who they live with, budget
ENERGY BALANCE
Energy Input =
Energy Output
(dietary intake)
(physical activity)
E In > E Out =
+ E Balance (wt gain)
E In < E Out =
- E Balance (wt loss)
But, not always this simple.
ENERGY AVAILABILITY
 The amount of energy available to the body to
perform all other functions after exercise
training is subtracted.
If



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Negative Energy Balance occurs & persists…
Weight loss
Muscle loss
Fatigue
Poor performance
Female Athlete Triad risk
Female Athlete Triad
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Disordered Eating
Amenorrhea
Low bone mineral density
Osteoporosis risk
Low energy intake compared to
expenditure
Case Study: Female Athlete Triad
16 y.o. female rhythmic gymnast
Struggles with weight and body image
Wants to lose 10 lbs in 6 weeks
Resembles both parents body types; carries
more weight on body
 Coach recently suggested juice fast
 Although she agreed to follow more sensible
diet, her “inner voice” tells her she must get
thinner… purging and low self-esteem




Case Study: Female Athlete
Triad
Age: 16
Ht: 5’ 5”
Wt: 115 lbs (52.2 kg)
Frame: small
BMI: 19
Personal goal: 105 lbs
Suggested: 112-115 lbs
 Menarche: 15 yr
 Menses: <3x/yr
 Diet Hx: No Red Meat,
Low Carb, Low Fat,
and recently purging
daily
 Training: >30 hr/wk
 Injuries: knee surgery,
stress fractures (foot;
spine)
 Family hx: both
parents endomorphic
Case Study: Female Athlete
Triad
Typical Training Day
Breakfast: 1 mango, ½ cup blueberries, ¾ cup LF vanilla yogurt, 4 Wasa
crackers, 1 T peanut butter
Lunch:
3 oz tuna, 1 cup salad, ½ cup melon cubes
Post Exercise: 590 ml sport drink
Supper: 2 cups spaghetti & meat sauce, 1 cup skim milk, ¾ mixed
veggies
Intake: 1390 kcal
Recommended: 2100 kcal
NEGATIVE ENERGY BALANCE: -710 kcal
BODY COMPOSITION &
BODY WEIGHT
 Athletic performance can NOT be predicted by
these two factors only
 Body weight can influence speed, power, &
endurance
 Weight class sports, runners, speed skating,
wrestling, boxing, light weight rowing sailing
 Body composition can influence strength,
agility, & appearance
 Gymnastics, figure skating, ballet/dance, volleyball,
martial arts…
Recommended Number of Food Guide
Servings Per Day
Food Group
Vegetables & Fruit
General
Guidelines
Athletes
Endurance
Sports
7-10
8-14+
15+
6-8
8-14+
15+
2-4
3-4
4-6
2-3
2-3
3-4
CARBOHYDRATE
Grain Products
CARBOHYDRATE
Milk & Alternatives
CARBOHYDRATE & PROTEIN
Meat & Alternatives
PROTEIN, CARBOHYDRATE?
Carbohydrate…
the prime fuel for Energy
 Brain
 Muscle
 Blood sugar
 Muscle glycogen stores
If low, may feel dizzy, light
headed, fatigued, muscle
feels heavy, decreased
performance, poor
recovery, higher risk for
injury, especially if
overtraining.
 How Much Do Athletes
Need?
g/kg BW not %
5 g/kg BW is minimum
CHO for replacing muscle
glycogen stores
(5-10g/kg BW range)
LOW CARB DIETS…
Lose water & muscle (if low kcal)
Dehydration fatigue
Set-up to crave & binge
Rotten apple breath (ketones)
Constipation (low fibre)
Lack of B vitamins (energy co-factors)
Deficiency in key nutrients (Fe, Ca)
Mood swings, depression, low libido
May slow down RMR (wt gain)
Weight quickly regained after diet (increase body fat)
Weight loss after 1 yr same as traditional weight-loss
diets
 NOT RECOMMENDED FOR ATHLETES
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CARBS: What Kind?


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Whole Grains
Legumes
Vegetables & Fruit
Milk/Alt
Less refined starch & sugar
More Fibre means slow releasing energy
from complex carbohydrates
Restore Muscle Glycogen
 CHO for Immediate Recovery:
 1.0 – 1.5 g CHO/kg BW
 15-30 minutes post game or following intense
training. Follow every 2 hours for up to 4-6 hours
 84 kg (185 lbs) x 1.0 – 1.5 = 84-126 g CHO
 Sport drink (6%) 5 ½ cups (1400 ml) = 84 g
 500 ml chocolate milk + 12” sub = 120 g
Recovery CHO…
 50 grams
 Large banana + 250
ml choc milk
 1 cup applesauce
 750 ml Gatorade
 1 cup spaghetti + ½ c
tomato sauce
 500 ml choc milk 1%
 100 grams
 Peanut butter
sandwich + 250 ml
choc milk, banana
 1.5 L
Gatorade/Powerade
 Frozen fruit smoothie
(750 ml) + 1 high
CHO energy bar
 4 oatmeal cookies +
500 ml choc milk 1%
Dietary Protein
Role



Growth, maintenance, & repair of tissues, antibodies, hormones,
enzymes, RBCs, WBC etc.
Training ---- Net pro synthesis
Training ---- Stimulus to build muscle
How Much?



Sports diet: 15-20% (total E)
AMDR: 10-35% (total E)
RDA: 0.8 g/kg BW per day
Athlete Recommendations



Endurance 1.2-1.4
Power/Strength 1.0-1.7
Avg. Range 1.2-1.7
Do Athletes Need More Protein?
0.8 g/kg/d
1.7g/kg/d
RDA Adults
1-1.2g/kg/d
Fitness/youth
1.2-1.4g/kg/d
Endurance
1.0Strength
North American diet easily provides: 1.4 to 2.0 g/kg/d
Can Athletes Protein Intake Be
Met Through Diet Alone?
1.7 g/kg/day for 65 kg soccer athlete
beginning of training season
1.7 x 60 = 110 g protein/day
Training Diet:
Breakfast
Snack 1
Lunch
Snack 2
Supper
Snack 3
2 eggs, 3 toast, 250 ml juice (22 g)
750 ml sport drink, banana (1 g)
12” lean meat sub, 500 ml choc milk, 1 apple (38 g)
Shake: 500 ml milk, 125 ml yogurt, 125 ml fruit (24 g)
7oz (120g) chicken, L potato, 250 ml veggies, 1 roll,
salad (70 g)
500 ml cereal, 375 ml milk (21 g)
TOTAL: 177 g protein = 2.72 g/kg/d
LOW vs HIGH PROTEIN DIETS
 Low Pro Diet
 Usually low calorie
 Risk for decrease
LBM
 Amenorrhea
 micronutrieint
deficiency (Fe, Zn…)
 Increased risk
tendonitis & overuse
injuries, delayed
healing
 High Pro Diet




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Limit CHO intake
Fatigue
Poor performance
Inadequate recovery
Risk for dehydration
Low fibre
Used for weight loss,
increase LBM, ultraendurance training
Gain Lean Body Mass
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RMR x AF + (500 - 1000) kcal
Regular resistance training
Rest days – sufficient “quality” sleep hours
Eat 6-8 times daily24/7, even days off
Balance of CHO (5-10g/kg), Pro (1.2-1.7g/kg), healthy
fats (1-2g+/kg)
Energy dense foods
Limit appetite fillers
Accountability – food records, see sport RD
Supplements are not a short cut
Check for disordered eating, body image/weight issues
Vegetarian Athlete
 May be low in
 Energy, EFAs, Ca, Fe, Zn, vit B2, B12, D
 Monitor

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Body wt/composition changes
Menstrual hx/amenorrhea (risk bone #)
Protein quantity & quality 1.3-1.8 g/kg
Iron status (CBC, S-ferritin),
 increased risk in periods of rapid growth
 Iron deficiency anemia decreases performance
 Educate
 Cooking, Shopping, Recipes/Menu Planning, Travel
Protein Supplements
 Whey (BCAA + cysteine)


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Isolate – 90% availability, high quality
Concentrate – lower quality
egg albumin, casein, milk solids, soy milk protein, hemp
etc.

Convenience, Portable, Calories



Most lack CHO & Micronutrients (Fe)
? Safety <18 yrs
Risk banned substance
 Pros
 Cons
Protein Supplements Not More Effective
Than Dietary Protein
Dietary Fats
Role

E source; EFAs, transport fat-soluble vitamins; protect organs;
cell membranes; help produce hormones; insulate nerve fibres
How Much



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Sports diet: 20-30%
AMDR: 20-35% total E
Athletes: ~1-1.5g/kg/d
Min. 6 fats per day
Dietary Guidelines


10% Saturated, 10% PUFA, 10% MUFA
EFAs – omega 3: 0.6-1.2% total E
omega 6: 5-10% of total E
Pros & Cons of Fat…
 Inadequate
 Risk for amenorrhea
 Red flag for
disordered eating/ED
 Low body fat: lack
organ protection
 Poor transport fat
soluble vit (A,D,E,K)
 Inadequate EFA
 Lack satiety
 Excessive
 Compromise CHO &
Pro intake
 GI upset
 Lethargy
 Risk: CVD, CA
 Unhealthy fats
 Increase body fat
Omega 3 Supplement???
 Fish Oil
Supplement


1 gel cap = 150 mg EPA =
100 mg DHA = 250 mg
2 gel caps/day = 500 mg =
0.5 g
 Real Food

6 oz salmon = 1.9 g

4 x more omega 3
Choose fish 2-3 times per
week

Salmon, mackerel,
sardines, swordfish,
tuna, rainbow trout,
omega 3 eggs. Also
fortified milk, yogurt,
cheese, energy bars
Other Nutrients to Monitor in
Athletes…
 B Complex Vitamins
 Enriched whole grains, green leafy veg, high
quality animal protein sources
 Iron
 Supplementation may be required (stages of
iron deficiency)
 Heme vs non-heme
 Antioxidants
 Vit C, B-carotene, Vit E, Se
 Increase veg/fruit and whole grains
 Suppl not supported by scientific literature
Training & Competition Diets
 Before
 During
 After
BEFORE
 Goals
 Prevent low BG
 Increase glygogen levels
 Prevent hunger
 Hydrate
 Consider
 Timing of meal before exercise
 Intensity, duration, type exercise
 Training or competition
 Minimize GI distress
 Everyone will tolerate different types and amounts
of foods/fluids before training and competition.
BEFORE
CHO Loading
 Supersaturate glycogen stores
 Current Method
 3 days prior consume 7-10 g/kg/d
 Endurance/Ultraendurance sports
 Marathons, Triathlon/ironman, adventure
 Long distance sports, Tour de France
You don’t need to deplete with exhaustive
exercise and or CHO restriction… old method.
BEFORE
 Night Before Events
 Familiar foods
 Ample time to digest
 Top up bedtime snack
 Day of Events
 Fluids: 5-7 ml/kg 4 hrs prior
 Meal before:
 +500 ml fluids
 Large meal; 2-4 g CHO/kg, 2-4 hrs prior


Small meal; 1-2 g CHO/kg, 1-2 hrs prior
Snack/liquid; < 1 hr
BEFORE
 Snacks before

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250 – 500 ml fluids within 1-2 hr prior
Portable – enroute training
Restaurant/fast food options
Readily available at home after school,
etc.
BEFORE Comp/Training
Considerations
 Do’s
 ? Low glycemic CHO,
small amount low-fat
protein
 ~2g CHO/kg >2 hrs
 ? Limit fibre
 Ample fluids
 Too nervous to eat:
 Dry CHO, sport
drinks, dilute
juices, blended
drinks, Boost etc.
 Don’ts
 Try new foods or fluids
day of competition
 Avoid eating/drinking
 Consume energy
drinks, carbonated
drinks, alcohol
 Include spicy, gas
forming foods, fatty,
high sugar foods
BEFORE MEAL EXAMPLES…
 Meal 1
Instant oatmeal, ¾ c 1% milk, 1 banana, 1 boiled
egg, ½ ww bagel, 1 tsp butter, water
549 kcal, 90g CHO, 23g Pro, 13g Fat
 Meal 2
6” turkey sub, 591 ml apple juice, water
591 kcal, 96g CHO, 18g Pro, 15g Fat
 Meal 3
3 oz chicken breast, 2 c cooked brown rice, 1 c stir fry
veggies, 1 Tbsp olive oil, water
681 kcal, 94g CHO, 33g Pro, 19g Fat
GOALS DURING EXERCISE /
COMPETITION
 Prevent hypoglycemia
 Maintain hydration
 Prevent hyponatremia
 Consider
Environment – hot/humid/cold/windy/altitude
Intensity of exercise
Duration of exercise
Type of exercise – swim, biathlon, adventure
racing, etc.
 Access to foods/fluids
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DURING EXERCISE/COMP
 Prevent hypoglycemia
 > 60 minutes non-stop Duration:
 30-60 g CHO/hr

2 cups Gatorade per hour

Combo of CHO sources: glucose, sucrose, fructose, OR
maltodextrin
 Athletes prefer sour (lemon) to sweet drinks; 6-8% CHO
 30 g CHO

500 ml sport drink, ¾ most CHO sport bars, 1 banana,
3 Fig Newtons, ~1 sport gel
 Multi-Events – consume CHO during breaks to sustain
energy (sport drink, crackers, energy bars, fruit,
milk/yogurt
RECOVERY
 FLUIDS – wrong choices
 Carbonated drinks
 Alcohol
 Delays short term recovery
 Energy drinks
 Anxiety, insomnia, GI upset, rapid heartbeat, higher
risk for injury, unwanted withdrawal symptoms.
Do Not exceed
5.3 mg/kg <12 yr
8.0 mg/kg adult
(2 Red Bull for 30 kg child)
(2 RockStar, 1 Starbucks Grande)
RECOVERY
FLUIDS…
 Water
 100% fruit juice
 Milk/Chocolate milk
 Sport drink
 Yogurt
 Smoothies
 1 lb (0.5 kg) wt/sweat loss
= 16-24 oz (450-675 ml)
fluid
 High GI fluids
 Carb + Pro fluids
Post game meal
High CHO,
Moderate Pro & Fat with
Ample Fluids &
Salt
4 Rs for Recovry
 Restore muscle glycogen
 Replace sweat losses
 Repair muscle damage
 Rest
CASE STUDY
SOCCER & RECOVERY
NUTRITION
15 yo male, 6’, 165 lb (75 kg)
Fatigue
Poor eating habits
Goal: increase LBM & Energy
Trains x2/day
Loses 3 lbs sweat at practice
High fast foods, eat “on the run”
High pro – low CHO bar 1x/d (recovery)
Dietary intake initial visit with sports RD
Kcal 2899, Pro:98g, CHO:344g, Fat: 124g
Recommended Intake
Kcal 4367, Pro:128g, CHO:600g, Fat:135g, Fluids: 3.5-4 L
1.7-2.0g Pro/kg, 8-10g CHO/kg, 1.8g Fat /kg
growing adolescent
Initial Training Diet: Soccer
Breakfast
Snack
Lunch
Snack
Post Train
Supper
Snack
2 c Cheerios, 1 c milk, (sleeps late)
Practice 2 c water (over 1.5 hr)
Candy bar (famished), 1 c water after exercise
Super Burger, L fries, 375 ml cola
No fluids or snack before practice
Practice (2 hr), 1 c water
Hi Pro, Lo CHO bar, 1 c sport drink
3 oz chicken, 10” tortilla, ½ c lettuce, green pepper, 2 Tbsp
creamy dressing, 375 ml sprite (fast food, in car)
6 chocolate chip cookies, 1 c fruit punch (doing homework)
1Milk/alt, 8Grain/Starch, 6ozMeat/alt, 1/2Veg, 0Fruit,
2 Tbsp dressing/hidden fats 2.5 L Fluids
Kcal 2899 CHO 344g Pro 98g Fat 124g
YOUR RECOMMENDATIONS
Food/Fluids

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When
What
Where
How much
Sleep
 How much
Recommended Training Menu
Breakfast
2 c Cheerios, 1 c milk, 1 c OJ
Practice 2 c water before & during
Snack
Banana, 2 Tbsp peanut butter, 2 c apple juice
Lunch
2 tuna sandwiches on WW, 3 tsp Becel,
1 c V-8 juice, apple, 1 c water
Snack
1 cereal bar, 1 c sport drink, (1 hr before)
Practice (2 hr), 1 c water + sport drink
Post Train
1 c water, 1 c choc milk, 3 c sport drink,
(if 3 lb sweat loss)
Supper
4 oz chicken, 1 ½ c rice, 1 c broccoli, garden
salad, 2 Tbsp olive oil/vinegar, ¾ c mixed
berries, 1 c milk,
Snack
2 oatmeal cookies, 1 c milk, 1 oz dark
chocolate
4Milk/alt, 13Grain/Starch, 8-9ozMeat/alt, 4Veg,
5-6Fruit, 8Tbsp dressing/+ less hidden fats 4+ L Fluids
Gold Medals are won by:
 Good genes
 Years of quality training
 Consistent, optimal nutrition
QUESTIONS?
Your Resources
THANK YOU
Jorie Janzen, RD
Sports Dietitian
[email protected]
 Sport Medicine and
Science Council
Manitoba
 Canadian Sport Centre
Manitoba
 Coaching Manitoba
 Dietitians of Canada
 Gatorade Sport Science
Institute
 Australian Institute of
Sport
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