Slide #1: Lesson 1: Food Safety Introduction and Background Hello, this is ________ with Ohio State University Extension Family and Consumer Sciences. Welcome to Lesson 1. Food Safety Introduction and Background of the Occasional Quantity Cooks series. Slide #2: Lesson Objectives After completion of this lesson, occasional quantity cooks will be able to: Recognize the factors that lead to foodborne illness, and Recognize the impact foodborne illness could have on a quantity food event Slide #3: Introduction (Critical Thinking Question) Have you ever sent people home from a gathering at your house, or gone home yourself from a food event and had the pleasant memories of the experience ruined by a visit from the “ﬂu bug?” You could have more than just a “ﬂu bug.” After careful examination, it may be that you actually had some type of foodborne illness caused by improper handling, storage, or preparation. The goals of this program are to discuss the basic types of food poisoning pathogens, their causes, and prevention techniques. Whether you are preparing an everyday family meal, foods for a special gathering, or food for a fundraiser for your group, food safety is a critical factor in the success of the activity. We always want to send people away with pleasant memories and not a stomachache! Slide #4: Why All the Concern about Foodborne Illness? There are an estimated 48 million cases of foodborne illness causing more than 3,000 deaths annually in the United States. Many cases go unreported because people think they simply have a mild “ﬂu bug” when they actually have a foodborne illness. Two to three percent of the cases lead to secondary long-term illnesses. For example, E. coli can lead to kidney failure in infants and children. Salmonella can lead to reactive arthritis and Listeria can lead to meningitis and stillbirths. Slide #5: Factors Making Controlling Foodborne Pathogens Challenging The following factors make controlling foodborne pathogens particularly challenging: Consumers do not always take time to wash hands and utensils or thaw raw meat properly. Emerging pathogens demand greater care. The four most serious food-borne pathogens in the United States weren’t even known as sources of foodborne diseases until the 1980s. The food supply has become global. Many different countries supply food products to the United States. More food is consumed away from home. USDA estimates 48 cents of every food dollar is spent away from home. The amount of food prepared away from home and taken home for consumption has increased as well. This creates unique food safety challenges. Microorganisms continue to adapt and evolve and increase their degree of severity. New modes of transmission have been identiﬁed for known pathogens. For example, Salmonella once thought to contaminate the outside of eggs has now been identiﬁed inside eggs. E. coli, originally identiﬁed in undercooked ground beef, has also been found in salami, raw milk, lettuce, and unpasteurized cider. Slide #6: Important Facts to Know About Foodborne Illness The costs of foodborne illness are high. The USDA Economic Research Service estimates $5.6 to $9.4 billion annually in medical costs and loss in productivity. Toxins produced by pathogens can cause illness, and some toxins are deadly. Most toxins are very heat resistant, so heating foods may not destroy toxins. There are many symptoms of foodborne illness. The most common include nausea, diarrhea, vomiting, and stomach cramps. CDC experts report many illnesses commonly referred to as ﬂu are actually foodborne illness. Foods that cause foodborne illness generally do not taste, look, or smell bad. If they did, no one would eat them and no one would get foodborne illness. High-risk populations for developing foodborne illness include infants, young children, pregnant women, the elderly, and people whose immune system is compromised. Many people from these groups are likely to attend your food function. Another result of unsafe food handling practices is food waste. Five to twenty-ﬁve percent of edible food is thrown away because spoilage has occurred. Slide #7: Causes of Foodborne Illness Several different types of pathogens cause foodborne illness including bacteria, viruses, parasites, and toxins produced by some pathogens. There are at least 30 pathogens commonly associated with foodborne illness. The CDC has targeted four bacterial pathogens as those of greatest common concern. They include E. coli, Salmonella, Listeria, and Campylobacter. Slide #8: Conditions Pathogens Need to Grow (FATTOM) There are certain conditions that many pathogens generally need to grow. You can remember these conditions by the acronym FATTOM. The “F” in FATTOM stands for food. Pathogens need something for food to grow. For most, this will be protein or carbohydrate foods. The “A” in FATTOM stands for acidity. Most pathogens grow best in relatively low acid environments. Acid inhibits the growth of many pathogens. Pathogenic bacteria grow well in food that is slightly acid to neutral, which includes most of the food we eat. A few bacteria have been known to grow in fairly acidic foods. For example, E. coli can grow in unpasteurized apple juice. Yeasts and molds tend to grow well in acidic foods such as fruit, fruit juices, and jam. The first "T" in FATTOM stands for time. Given enough time and other correct conditions, pathogens can grow to harmful levels. Remember the “2-hour rule.” Generally food should be left at room temperature for no more than two hours. The second “T” in the acronym FATTOM stands for temperature. Most pathogens grow best between 40 and 140 degrees F. This temperature range is considered the “danger zone.” This is a temperature range you want to keep food out of. Store foods at proper temperatures, keeping hot food hot and cold foods cold. It is also critical that foods be cooked to appropriate temperatures. The time temperature danger zone is 40 to 140 degrees Fahrenheit. The “O” stands for oxygen. Most pathogens need oxygen to grow. This is the reason many foods can be preserved by canning, which is a process where foods are sterilized and sealed inside a can or jar (an environment without air). Remember though, there are some pathogens that can thrive in an environment without air. They are referred to as anaerobic and include Clostridium botulinum, the bacteria that cause botulism, for example. Lastly, the "M" stands for moisture. Most pathogens need a moist environment to grow. Most foods provide moisture. Slide #9: Common Food Pathogens Based on FATTOM, we should understand that food with the greatest risk for causing a foodborne illness includes foods that are moist, high in protein or carbohydrate, and alkaline to slightly acidic. These foods would include meat, poultry, ﬁsh, dairy foods, eggs, cut melon, raw sprouts, and cooked plant-based foods such as potatoes, oatmeal, and tofu. There are a number of food pathogens that may cause foodborne illness. We will review seven of the main ones. Norovirus is one of the most common viruses. It is found in the intestinal tract of humans and feces-contaminated water. Food that has been involved in outbreaks includes water, shellﬁsh (especially raw or undercooked clams and oysters), raw vegetables, fresh fruit, and salads. Over nine million cases occur annually. Keys to prevention include practicing good personal hygiene, using water from approved sources, thoroughly cooking food, and purchasing shellﬁsh from approved sources. Salmonella is bacteria found in meat, poultry, raw milk, cut melons, eggs, and food with eggs. It is spread by contaminated utensils or work surfaces that aren’t cleaned and sanitized before or after using. It can also be spread by unclean hands or ﬂies. Keys to prevention include proper cooking to destroy this organism. Careful hand washing, clean work surfaces, and careful storage are other keys to prevention. Reheat leftovers to 165 degrees Fahrenheit to be sure that all Salmonella bacteria are destroyed. Staphylococcus is bacteria that are usually carried by people on their skin, hair, nose, throat, and infected sores. It is commonly associated with meats, poultry, potato and macaroni salads, egg products, and cream-ﬁlled pastries. Keys to prevention include keeping foods at the proper temperature; restricting food handlers from helping if they have health problems, including cold or ﬂu symptoms and open wounds; and following good food handling procedures. Clostridium perfringens is sometimes called the cafeteria germ. Sources include the intestinal tracts of humans and animals, soil, and soil contaminated with feces. It is generally found in meat and poultry products and related dishes. Keys to prevention include keeping foods at appropriate temperatures, storing carefully, and using time and temperature control in cooling and reheating cooked food. Clostridium botulinum produces a toxin that causes botulism. Low-acid home-canned foods such as beans and corn that have been improperly processed are the most common foods to contain this botulism toxin. Never use home-canned foods for a public event. Also, never use a can with a leaky seal or cans that are bent, bulging, or broken. Keys to prevention include proper processing of home-canned foods and checking commercially canned goods for damage. Look for swollen ends, leaks or ﬂawed seals, rust, or dents. These may indicate signs of contamination. Never taste canned foods that you aren’t sure of and don’t use them in food preparation of any kind. Other foods that have caused botulism include sautéed onions, baked potatoes, and meat pies left at room temperature. A major key to prevention is to hold foods at the proper temperatures. Listeria typically affects the very young and the elderly and can cause miscarriage for pregnant women. It is found in soil, water, and damp environments. It is sometimes found in unpasteurized milk, soft cheese, and ready-to-eat chilled foods, such as deli foods and luncheon meats. Keys to prevention include using only pasteurized milk and dairy products, cooking foods to their proper internal temperature, avoiding cross-contamination, and keeping surfaces clean and sanitized. E. coli is bacteria commonly associated with raw ground beef. It may also be found in unpasteurized milk and apple cider and juice products, as well as fresh produce and non-chlorinated water. Keys to prevention include thoroughly cooking ground beef to at least 155 degrees Fahrenheit for ﬁfteen seconds and avoiding cross-contamination to help control this bacteria. Use only pasteurized milk and apple products, and carefully wash fresh produce before cutting and serving. Slide #10: Summary Remember that bacteria exist in almost all raw foods. Cooking, controlling contamination, and denying ideal growth conditions for the microorganisms that are always there in small numbers are the best ways to prevent foodborne illness. Foodborne illness may be caused by one of several factors including time and temperature abuse, cross contamination, or poor personal hygiene. This is the conclusion of lesson 1. Please proceed to lesson 2.