Principles of Art Creative Arts Visual Art Unit Principles of Art Remember: PRINCIPLES ORGANIZE ELEMENTS! So when we discuss and analyze principles, we must talk in terms of elements. For example, this painting is balanced asymmetrically. How? Richard Diebenkorn. Woman by a Large Window. 1957. Acrylic on canvas, 180 x 165 cm. Principles of Art Balance Emphasis Gradation The Eight Principles of Art Harmony Movement Proportion Rhythm Variety Principles organize elements! Principle # 1 – Balance One can literally fold this in two and each side is equal. Both sides are different but equal. How is this balanced? Principle # 1 – Balance Sand painting by Tibetan Buddhist monk. Radial balance. Radial balance means lines or shapes grow from a center point. Principle # 1 – Balance Yin-yang symbol from ancient China. Well-known example of perfect balance, meaning a correct life. All opposites in a perfect balance, suggesting a universal harmony. Principle # 1 – Balance Unlike symmetry which is basically fixed and static, asymmetry is active and much more dependent on the intuitive balance of visual weights. In asymmetrical compositions the equilibrium is much more challenging and dynamic than in symmetrical or radial ones. Pablo Picasso. Girl Before a Mirror. 1932. Oil on canvas, 64 x 51" Principle #2 - Emphasis Artists use high contrast to make objects stand out show up. In Wheatfields with Ravens, Van Gogh used high contrast colors to make the yellow wheat fields stand out against the dark blue sky. Principle # 2 - Emphasis How does Frida Kahlo achieve emphasis in this self-portrait? Think in terms of elements. Principle # 2 - Emphasis de Goya, the great Spanish artist, achieves emphasis by manipulating which elements? Francisco de Goya. Saturn Devouring One of His Sons. Mural transferred to canvas. 146 x 83 cm. Principle # 2 - Emphasis chiaroscuro a method for applying value to a two-dimensional piece of artwork to create the illusion of a threedimensional solid form. Devised during the Italian Renaissance, chiaroscuro was used by artists such as da Vinci and Raphael. In this system, if light is coming in from one predetermined direction, then light and shadow will conform to a set of rules. Georges de La Tour. The Repentent Magdalene. (c.1640) 113 x 93 cm. Principle # 2 - Emphasis Notice the bright light from the reflection and the gradation or change in value until the shadow is reached. Principle # 2 - Emphasis Chiaroscuro (and all of the elements and principles) remains evident in contemporary art. For example, this piece by Luis Royo, Bifid Chiaroscuro, shows the dramatic effect this technique produces in fantasy/surreal art. Principle # 3 - Gradation The Gradation of Fire. Rene Magritte Principle # 3 - Gradation A gradual step-by-step change from dark to light values or from large to small shapes, or rough to smooth textures, or one color to another. Gradation refers to any way of combining elements of art by using a series of gradual changes in those elements. Gradation is unlike contrast which stresses sudden changes in elements. gradation of color gradation of size Principle # 3 - Gradation Principle # 3 - Gradation Georges Seurat. "Sunday Afternoon of the Island of La Grande Jatte" 1884-1886 Principle # 3 - Gradation Principle # 4 – Harmony/Unity Harmony is achieved by using similar elements throughout the work; harmony gives an uncomplicated look to the work . Unity is the underlying principle summarizing all of the principles and elements. It refers to the coherence of the whole, the sense that all of the parts are working together to achieve a common result; a harmony of all the parts. Fruit Displayed on a Stand. Gustave Caillebotte. 1881-1882. How does Caillebotte achieve harmony? Think in terms of elements! Principle # 4 – Harmony/Unity Unity also exists in variety. Elements do not need to be identical in form providing they have a common quality of meaning or style. For example, fashions from a specific period share common features of silhouette, materials, and color that identify the style of the day, or the look of a particular designer. Principle # 4 – Harmony/Unity Lake Thun. Ferdinand Hodler. 1905. Principle # 5 - Movement Movement shows action; it may also be used to direct the eye throughout the picture plane. What elements does Kiefer use to create movement in his painting about the human and cultural catastrophe of WWII? To the Unknown Painter. Anselm Kiefer. 1983. Principle # 5 - Movement Starry Night. Vincent Van Gogh. 1889 Principle # 5 - Movement The Scream. Edvard Munch. 1893. Principle #6 - Proportion Proportion describes the size, location or amount of one thing (object) compared to another. Based on the proportions of the human body as described by Vitruvius, an ancient Roman architect. The rediscovery of the mathematical proportions of the human body is considered one of the greatest achievements of the Italian Renaissance. Vitruvian Man. Da Vinci. 1490. Principle #6 – Proportion The Last Supper. Leonardo da Vinci. 1498. Principle #6 – Proportion Cristo Morto. Andrea Mantegna. 1591 Principle #7 – Rhythm Artists create visual rhythm by repeating art elements and creating patterns. Rhythm is a type of movement in painting repetition of shapes and colors or alternating lights and darks. Principle #7 – Rhythm Nude Descending Staircase No. 2. Marcel Duchamp. 1912 Principle #7 – Rhythm Autumn Rhythm: Number 30. Jackson Pollack. 1950. Oil on cavas, 8’8’ x 17’ 3”. Principle #7 – Rhythm Guernica. Pablo Picasso. 1937. Oil on canvas, 11’6” x 25’8”. Principle #8 – Variety By using different shapes, textures, colors, etc., the artist can achieve variety creating visual differences or highlighting a part of the work or adding more interest to the work overall. Harlequin’s Carnival. Joan Miro. 1925 Principle #8 – Variety Son of Man. Rene Magritte. Principle #8 – Variety Time Transfixed. Rene Magritte. 1938. Theories of Art - Imitationalism Imitationalism – features a realistic representation of subject matter. Focus on literal qualities. Hunters in the Snow. Pieter Bruegel. 1565 Theories of Art - Imitationalism American Gothic. Grant Wood. 1930. Theories of Art - Imitationalism Triple Self Portrait. Norman Rockwell. 1960. Oil on canvas, 44.5” x 34.75”. Theories of Art - Formalism Formalism – emphasizes the effective organization of elements through the use of principles. Focus on visual qualities. Composition X. Vassily Kandinsky. 1939. Oil, watercolor, ink, and pencil. Theories of Art - Formalism Diamond Painting in Red, Yellow, Blue. Piet Mondrian. c. 1921-1925. oil on canvas, 56.25” x 56”. Theories of Art - Formalism Three Musicians. Pablo Picasso. 1921. Oil on canvas, 6’7” x 7’3 ¾”. Theories of Art - Emotionalism Emotionalism – the artist focuses on the vivid communication of moods, feelings, and ideas. Expressive qualities are emphasized. The Old Guitarist. Pablo Picasso. 1903/4. Oil on panel. Theories of Art - Emotionalism Modern Migration of the Spirit. Jose Clemente Orozco. 1933. Theories of Art - Emotionalism Sunrise with Sea Monsters. J.M.W. Turner. 1845 Theories of Art Raft of the Medusa. Theodore Gericault. 1819.