Unit 2 Topic: Foreign Affairs from Imperialism to Post World War I (1898-1930) The industrial and territorial growth of the United States fostered expansion overseas. Greater involvement in the world set the state for American participation in World War I and attempts to preserve post-war peace. Chapter 1: United States Imperialism and World War I Content Statement: As a result of overseas expansion, the Spanish-American War and World War I, the United States emerged as a world power. Expectations For Learning: Analyze the circumstances which enabled the United States to emerge as a world power in the early 1900’s. Section 1: United States Imperialism Content Elaboration: With the closing of the western frontier, Americans developed favorable attitudes toward foreign expansion. Pushed along by global competition for markets and prestige, and expanded navy and a sense of cultural superiority, the United States engaged in a series of overseas actions which fostered its move to global power status. The annexation of Hawaii followed by a successful conclusion to the Spanish-American War allowed the United States to join other nations in imperialist ventures. Reasons for Imperialism • Q: What is imperialism? • A: An attempt to create an empire; when a country looks to expand its territory • *Up until the 1890’s, most Americans wanted to stay isolated. We had oceans on 2 sides and friendly nations on the other 2 borders. Our FOREIGN POLICY was isolationism. Why did we change our foreign policy to imperialism??????? Reason #1: Economic Growth 1. Businesses wanted to make more $$$$ • A. Needed foreign markets • B. Easy trade • 2. Raw materials/natural resources • A. US could take from new territories • 1. oil 2. coal 3. timber Reason #2: Military 1. Alfred T. Mahan Wrote The Influence of Sea Power Upon History (1890) 2. This book said: Strong navy = strong nation 3. Why??? a. can protect new nations b. use new nations as fueling and supply ports 4. Within 10 years of book, US had 3rd largest navy Reason #3: Psychological Reasons • 1. Many hoped that interest in foreign affairs would divert attention from domestic problems – Examples: • crime, dirt, disease in cities • poor working conditions in factories • government corruption (city bosses, etc) Reason #4: Ideological Beliefs • Charles Darwin: “Survival of the Fittest” and Social Darwinism: the strongest countries survive—it is their obligation to take over other nations • Manifest destiny Reason #5: Religious reasons • duty to spread Christianity Reason #6: Influence of the Press • 1. Yellow Press: a type of journalism that presents little or no legitimate wellresearched news and instead uses eyecatching headlines to sell more newspapers. – a. told sensational stories on faraway places – b. examples • William Randolph Hurst (New York Journal) • Joseph Pulitzer (New York World) • *These people argued for expansion 2 of our famous Yellow Journalists Summary—6 Reasons for Imperialism 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. E very M ichigan P layer Is R eally I diotic Economic Military Psychological Ideological Religious Influence of the Yellow Press OGT Multiple Choice • _____ Alfred T. Mahan, in explaining what was necessary to keep the United States strong in the modern world, put forward the idea that. • A. the U.S. must sell its products on all continents. • B. the nation needed a powerful navy. • C. the U.S. should build a canal across the Isthmus of Panama • D. all of the above OGT Multiple Choice • _____ (Blue Book, 2005) What change in the United States after Reconstruction was a factor in the rise of imperialism? • A. Thousands of people were killed in the Civil War. • B. Business and industry suffered a severe decline • C. Businesses required foreign sources for raw materials and markets in which to sell their products • D. People feared that European nations were an imminent threat to invade the United States OGT Multiple Choice • _____ (Practice Test Booklet 2005) During the late-19th century the United States wanted colonies so that • A. they could provide the colonies with raw materials • B. they could get manufactured goods from the colonies • C. they could become a market for products from the colonies • D. they could get raw materials from the colonies OGT Multiple Choice • _____ Americans favored overseas expansion in the late 1800’s for all the following reasons except to • A. spread Christianity and democracy • B. acquire bases for United States security • C. acquire new markets for trade • D. halt the spread of Russian influence OGT Multiple Choice • _____ (Blue Book, 2005) In his book The Influence of Sea Power Upon History (1890), Alfred T. Mahan argued that • A. the United States was so well protected by both oceans that a strong navy was not necessary • B. most powerful empires relied upon armies rather than naval power • C. the U.S. Navy in 1890 was already strong enough and should not be enlarged • D. to become a world power, a nation must possess a strong navy OGT Multiple Choice • ____ (Base Test March 2005) One factor that motivated U.S. imperialism during the late 19th and early 20 centuries was • A. development of closer political ties with European nations • B. closing of China to all foreign trade • C. support of international peacekeeping operations • D. acquisition of new markets and sources of raw materials OGT Multiple Choice • _____ (Blue Book, 2005) Supporters of imperialism would be most likely to use which of the following ideas to argue in favor of territorial acquisition? • A. universal suffrage • B. manifest destiny • C. self-determination • D. freedom of religion OGT Multiple Choice • • • • • _____ An attempt to create an empire is A. imperialism B. neutrality C. isolation D. rough riding OGT Extended Response • Analyze 2 reasons that countries gained control of territory through imperialism and the impact on people living in the territory that was controlled. OGT Short Answer • (Blue Book, 2005) If you were a person living in a territory that was being taken over by the United States, how would you feel about possibly revolting? The Spanish-American War • 1. BACKGROUND • A. Spain controlled Cuba • B. The U.S. wanted to control Cuba (only 90 miles from Florida) • C. The Cubans wanted independence • D. There was a war between Spanish and Cubans • E. Spanish tortured Cubans in concentration camps • 1. Many died of disease or starved • 2. Yellow Press – a. started writing stories about Spanish atrocities against Cubans – b. public wants war vs. Spain! – c. Pres. Cleveland did not give in – d. Pres. McKinley did not give in at first – ***Public opinion grew louder and louder for war vs. Spain! President William McKinley “Remember the Maine” • • • • • • a. b. c. d. was a U.S. battleship that was in Cuba it blew up 260 killed Yellow Press blamed the Spanish --they really didn’t do it! e. “Remember the Maine!” The Philippines • Fighting actually begins in The Philippines • Ass. Secretary of Navy, Theodore Roosevelt, orders navy to attack the Spanish fleet in the Philippines • Man in charge: Commodore George Dewey • US navy overwhelms Spanish • Aug. 13, 1898, US has control of the Philippines Theodore Roosevelt George Dewey Victory in Cuba • US army – a. mostly volunteers – b. poorly trained – c. many died of disease before fighting Theodore Roosevelt and the Rough Riders • A. Roosevelt gathered a rough group of people • B. They went to Cuba • 1. Roosevelt led them up San Juan Hill • 2. Bloody battle • 3. Roosevelt wins • C. Our navy sink all of Spain’s ships in Cuba • D. Americans cheered our victory • • ***THIS WAR LASTED ONLY 4 MONTHS!!! Roosevelt and the Rough Riders The “Splendid Little War” • A. Only 385 deaths • B. Lasted only 4 months • C. Cost $250 million • D. Big change in relationship between U.S. and rest of world • 1. Took all of Spain’s colonies • a. Cuba • b. Puerto Rico • c. Guam • d. Philippine Islands Revolt in the Philippines • Americans opposed to empire • A. Many Americans did not want an empire • B. Many against imperialism! • C. Why were these people against imperialism • 1. Brutal towards the Filipinos • 2. Lording over people in faraway places • 3. Might lead to war with Japan • D. Filipinos fought against the US--they wanted us out! • E. Thousands killed in this fight Teller and Platt Amendments • The Teller Amendment • A. U.S. would let Cuba govern itself. U.S. did not leave Cuba • 1. set up schools • 2. finances put in order • 3. keep peace • B. The Platt Amendment • 1. The U.S. was allowed to enter Cuba for any reason OGT Multiple Choice • _____ Compared to the Civil War, the American Revolution, World War I, and World War II, the Spanish-American War • A. was much longer • B. was much costlier in terms of amount of deaths • C. was much shorter • D. was less significant in terms of the relationship of the United States to the world OGT Multiple Choice • _____ All of the following developments led to war with Spain in 1898 except • A. the sinking of the Maine • B. the Yellow Press • C. Reports of the Spanish torturing the Cubans in concentration camps • D. the signing of the Teller and Platt Amendments OGT Multiple Choice • _____ (Practice Test Booklet 2005) The United States became an imperialist nation with interests in the Caribbean, Central America, the Far East, and the South Pacific following which war? • A. The Civil War • B. The Spanish-American War • C. World War I • D. The Korean War OGT Multiple Choice • _____ Most of the credit for the American victory in the Spanish-American War was earned by_____. • A. the Army • B. the Air Force • C. the Marines • D. the Navy and the Rough Riders OGT Multiple Choice • _____ The U.S. battleship Maine • A. was shattered by an explosion while in Cuba • B. led the attack on Spanish warships in the Philippines • C. led the attack on Spanish warships near Santiago, Cuba • D. was the flagship when the U.S. fleet sailed around the world OGT Short Answer • How did the U.S. involvement in the Spanish American war show that the U.S. was becoming a world power? The Annexation of Hawaii • Annex: to incorporate (territory) into the domain of a city, country, or state • For the story behind the annexation of Hawaii, read the following link: • http://www.ushistory.org/us/44b.asp • MAIN POINT: US WANTS HAWAII FOR NAVAL BASE IN PACIFIC OCEAN!!!!! Queen Liliuokalani The Open Door Policy in China • The “Open Door” in China • A. The U.S. wanted to trade with China • B. China was divided among France, Germany, Japan, and Russia • C. We demanded to these 4 that we be allowed to trade with China • D. China was to have an “Open Door” for trade The Boxer Rebellion • A. The “Boxers” were Chinese rebels • 1. They did not want other countries there • 2. They fought and killed many • 3. It took 7 weeks to put them out • B. The U.S. wanted Chinese independence • 1. Easier to trade • 2. We helped China get these other countries out • 3. China like this, and like the U.S. The Boxer Rebellion A. President McKinley • 1. Sept. 6, 1901 • a. assassinated • b. by Leon Czolgosz • c. he was an anarchist • 2. Vice President Teddy Roosevelt a. “speak softly and carry a big stick” • B. Teddy Roosevelt--President – a. “Big Stick” diplomacy: term is used to describe the foreign policy of the U.S. at the time, Roosevelt claimed the U.S. had the right to oppose European actions in the Western Hemisphere – b. believed US should be world power – c. imperialistic – d. anti-imperialists: did not like TR’s policy • many want this • easier to move navy from ocean to ocean • able to protect large empire The Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine • Q: What was the Monroe Doctrine? • A: President James Monroe came up with it in 1823. It said no European nation could set up colonies in the Americas. • Q: What is the Roosevelt Corollary? • A: Early 1900’s. Said the US would exercise “international police power” in response to chronic misconduct by any nation in the Western Hemisphere. Roosevelt Corollary • Continuation of TR’s imperialism – A. US intervened everywhere in Latin America – B. They did not like this • 1. this led to poor relations between US and many Latin American nations THE U.S. IS NOW GETTING A LARGE EMPIRE AROUND THE WORLD. THE U.S. IS BECOMING A WORLD POWER!!!!!! OGT Multiple Choice • _____ (Practice Test Booklet 2005) The Boxer Rebellion of 1900 was an attempt to remove • A. the British from India • B. the Europeans from South Africa • C. the French from Algeria • D. the Europeans from China OGT Extended Response • The U.S. became an imperialistic country by 1900. • •What is imperialism? (2 pts) • •How did the U.S. imperialism in the Far East, South Pacific, Caribbean, and Central America show the U.S. was becoming a world power? (2 pts) Section 2: World War I • Content Elaboration: With its entry into World War I, the United States mobilized a large army and navy to help the Allies achieve victory. After the war, European countries were forced to concentrate their resources on rebuilding their countries. However the United States enjoyed a brief period of economic prosperity and was able to exert authority as a world power. M.A.I.N. Causes of World War I A. Militarism B. Alliances C. Imperialism D. Nationalism E. War Breaks Out: Archduke Frances Ferdinand and his wife assassinated. Reason #1: Militarism 1. glorification of military power 2. Nations increased size of military 3. Nations increase weapons production 4. New technology = better and deadlier weapons Reason #2: Alliances • 1. War looked inevitable • 2. Nations started forming alliances: a group of countries who are friendly and make deals to help protect each other – Examples: • Germany allied with Austria-Hungary and Italy (Triple Alliance) Later: These countries known as the “Central Powers” • France allied with Russia and Great Britain (Triple Entente) Later: These countries known as “The Allies” • many other agreements made • “An attack on one is an attack on all.” Reason #3 Imperialism ***An attempt to create an empire 1. Countries competed for lands and raw materials 2. This competition led to conflicts Reason #4: Nationalism Nationalism: strong love of one’s country. This can lead to desperate actions, including fighting or war. • 1. Desire for Self-Rule – A. Europe made of several empires – B. They were multinational – C. Each group wanted own identity • Example: Austro-Hungarian Empire made up of Germans, Hungarians, Poles, Czechs, Slovaks, Serbs, Croatians, Jews, and Gypsies • 2. Rivalry Among Nations – A. Pride = competition = rivalries – B. This led to violent relationships between countries War Breaks Out • The Story of How the First World War Began • A country in Europe called Bosnia was a part of Austria-Hungary. Bosnia did not like this. They wanted to be a part of Serbia instead. Things were getting very tense, so the Emperor of Austria-Hungary sent his nephew, Archduke Ferdinand, to Bosnia. He was to try to smooth things over with the the government of Bosnia. • People in Bosnia did not like Archduke Ferdinand being there. One man named Gavrilo Princip decided to shoot Ferdinand and his wife, Sophie. Sophie died immediately and Ferdinand died shortly after. • The Emperor of Austria-Hungary, Francis Joseph, then declared war on Serbia. World War I had begun. • The assassination of Archduke Ferdinand led to the beginning of World War I. Archduke Ferdinand and his family. Countries Quickly Choose Sides • • • • • • Russia declared war on A-H Germany declared war against Russia France declared war on Germany Germany declared war France Great Britain declared war on Germany By August 14, 1914, 7 European countries were at war. Before World War I was over, more than 20 countries had fought, including the U.S. OGT Multiple Choice • • • • • _____ The first declaration of war involved A. Serbia declaring against Bosnia B. Russia declaring against Serbia C. Bosnia declaring against Italy D. Austria-Hungary declaring against Serbia OGT Multiple Choice • _____ World War I began with the asssassination of • A. Archduke Francis Ferdinand and his wife, Sophie • B. Kaiser Wilhelm • C. Czar Nicholas • D. the King of Serbia OGT Multiple Choice • _____ (Blue Book, 2005) At the start of World War I, all of the following were members of the Triple Entente except • A. Germany • B. Great Britain • C. France • D. Russia OGT Multiple Choice • (Practice Test Booklet 2005) One of the causes of World War I was the nations of Europe had aligned into two alliance systems. Which of the following combination of nations comprised of the Allies? • A. France, Great Britain, and Russia • B. Germany, Great Britain, and Russia • C. Austria-Hungary, Germany, and Italy • D. Austria-Hungary, France, and Italy OGT Multiple Choice • (Blue Book, 2005) Which factor guaranteed that a war between Britain and Germany would involve other nations? • A. the system of entangling alliances • B. new war technologies such as poison gas and airplanes • C. the assassination of Archduke Ferdinand in Sarajevo • D. the sinking of the Sussex OGT Extended Response • List and describe 4 MAIN long-term causes of World War I. II. The United States and the War 1914-1917 • A. Neutrality--not choosing sides • 1. The U.S. wanted peace • 2. Woodrow Wilson is President of the United States throughout World War I • a. declared U.S. neutrality immediately • b. urged Americans to not take sides • c. this was not possible, not even for Wilson Reason #1 for US entry into WWI: Ties That Bind 1. U.S. was for Britain a. spoke English b. read English books c. laws and customs are English d. born in Britain (or their parents) – People in the United States started taking the sides of their ancestry. President Woodrow Wilson He favored neutrality at the onset of World War I Reason #2 for US entry into WWI: Propaganda • Very influential manner of trying to make people support their group • Both sides sides used propaganda to influence people in the U.S. • ***The British cut the communications cable from Germany to the U.S. All information came from Britain about the war. Propaganda Poster Reason #3 for US entry into WWI: Trade with the Allies • 1. More and more we sided with Allies • a. Trade • --. food • --. weapons and ammo • --. raw materials • **Britain had a naval blockade of Germany. This made it difficult to trade with the Central Powers. • • • b. Loans --. $2 billion --. No loan = no trade = depression • ***1914-1916 (beginning of WWI) • Trade with Allies: from $800 million to $3 billion • Trade with Germany: $170 million to $1 million Reason #4 for US entry into WWI: Unrestricted Submarine Warfare by Germany • Germany did not like the U.S. trading with the Allies • Germany announced they would use U-Boats (German submarines) to attack U.S. merchant ships heading to England • Wilson warned Germany not to do this • Germany used the U-Boat anyway 1. Germany could not follow international law a. Germany had 27 subs (U-Boats) b. began to use the subs 2. Feb. 4, 1915 a. Germans declare waters around British Isle a war zone b. urged American ships not to go there c. urged Americans to not travel on Brit ships d. Wilson didn’t listen --. told Germany they would be responsible if any ships sunk e. Now, Britain begins seizing ships everywhere --. this “gagged” Germany Underseaboat Reason #5 for US entry into WWI: Sinking of the Lusitania • • • • • • • 1. May 7, 1915 2. Lusitania: British ship 3. U-Boats sank it 4. 1000 killed, 100 Americans 5. Later found it had war supplies on it 6. American public outraged 7. NO WAR YET! Wilson sent letters to Germany in protest Reason #6 for US entry into WWI: Arabic and Sussex Pledges 1. Wilson sends strong message to Germany • a. U.S. will sail wherever it wants • b. neutrality laws • 2. Many in U.S. want war • a. Teddy Roosevelt • 3. The Arabic • a. British ship • b. sunk by U-Boats • c. 2 Americans killed • d. Germany backed down • --. they didn’t want war with us • --. Arabic Pledge--would not sink any ships • 4. The Sussex • a. French ship • b. sunk by the Germans March 1916 • c. May 31, 1916--Sussex Pledge • --another promise by the Germans • 5. Germans wanted same rules • a. They killed with their U-Boats • b. British blockade starved Germans Reason #7 for US entry into WWI: The Zimmerman Note 1. wrote by German Arthur Zimmerman 2. sent to Mexico a. wants Mexico to help Germany by attacking the U.S. b. this would keep us out of Europe c. In return, Germany would help Mexico gain back Texas, Arizona, and New Mexico OGT Multiple Choice • When World War I first broke out the United States stated they were • A. on the side of the Allies • B. on the side of the Central Powers • C. neutral OGT Multiple Choice • During the first 3 years of the war, United States trade • A. increased with the Central Powers • B. decreased with the Allies • C. increased with the Allies • D. stayed the same with both sides OGT Multiple Choice • (Practice Test Booklet, 2005) Which of the following is not an example of propaganda? • A. A gov. poster to get people to enlist in the military during a war • B. The listing of names, addresses, and telephone numbers in the telephone directory • C. An advertisement to convince consumers to buy a particular brand of shoes • D. A candidate’s campaign slogan to help him or her get elected OGT Multiple Choice • America tended to favor the Allies because of all the following except • A. language and cultural ties to Great Britain • B. reports of German atrocities coming from England • C. the huge numbers of Irish and German immigrants in the United States • D. the sinking of ships by the German UBoats OGT Multiple Choice • (Blue Book, 2005) The single most important factor in causing the entry of the U.S. into World War I was • A. Britain’s naval blockade • B. the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo • C. unrestricted submarine warfare by Germany • D. the sinking of the Sussex OGT Multiple Choice • Two ships that were sunk by the Germans and resulted in them sending pledges to not sink any more ships were • • • • A. B. C. D. the Arabic and Sussex the Maine and the Arabic the Maine and the Sussex the Lusitania and the Andreodorea OGT Extended Response • List and explain 4 reasons why the United States became involved in World War I. The U.S. Goes to War April 2, 1917 1. Wilson asks Congress for Declaration of War against Germany 2. Wilson: “The world must be made safe for democracy.” 3. Four days later, Congress votes: Senate: 82 to 6 in favor House: 373 to 50 in favor The Sides During World War I • The Allies • • • • Great Britain France Russia United States • The Central Powers • Germany • Austria-Hungary *U.S. soldiers during WWI were called DOUGHBOYS. American Doughboy • When U.S. entered, the Allies were in bad trouble. Central Powers almost had the war won. Submarines had kept everything (food, money, men, ammo) out of the Allied countries. War on the Western Front • A. Trench warfare: type of warfare used during WWI • 1. machine guns • 2. defensive war • 3. stationary war: No movement • a. front lines changed little for over 3 years • 4. Conditions • a. front trenches • b. behind were supply trenches (5 miles) • c. connected by tunnels and railways • 5. “trench fever” “trench foot” “trench mouth” • --all caused by filth and fatigue • 6. isolation, dark, constant firing • ***This type of warfare led to a lot of casualties: death or injury during a war French Trenches War on the Western Front (Cont) B. The “battle” 1. A group from one trench charges over to the enemy trench 2. They fire their machine guns/weapons 3. Try to open up a hole in the line 4. This was tough a. barbed wire b. enemy machine gun Machine Guns Barbed Wire in “No Man’s Land” Early Losses in the War • A. 1914: 500,000 men killed from each side • B. 1915: no advancement over 3 miles • 1. French still lost 1.5 million • C. 1916: French lost 1 million The American Expeditionary Force (AEF) A. The U.S. came in time B. All other sides were tired and weary C. August 1918--U.S. had 500,000 soldiers 1. they pushed the Germans back D. End of Sept. 1918--U.S. had 1.25 million soldiers 1. Pushed Germans further back 2. took over trenches the Germans had for 3 yrs 3. cut the German supply lines 4. French + British also pushing back Germans E. German mistake--they did not believe the U.S. would be this strong • U.S.: lost only 50,000 men. • Other countries lost millions. We came in late and took care of business. • Nov. 11, 1918: armistice. This ended World War I. OGT Multiple Choice • World War I was the bloodiest war in history because of • A. the lack of medical personnel • B. the use of naval blockades • C. the development of new weapons such as the machine gun • D. its length OGT Short Answer • (Blue Book, 2005) Prior to the entry of the United States into World War I, two views prevailed. One favored preparedness, increasing our military strength to be ready for war. The other opposed military buildup and advocated pacifism. Pacifists argued that if the United States prepared for war, it was more likely to use the weapons that had been developed. Choose one of the points of view and write 2 reasons that explains your answer (2 points). The Home Front During World War I the U.S. government told everybody what to do: 1. how much and what they could eat 2. what factories could make and buy Mobilization of Men and Women Mobilize: to get ready for war A. Selective Service Act--set up the draft. 1. Passed: May, 1917 2. By end of war: 24 million drafted for different areas (army, Nat. Guard, etc) B. American factories 1. began to make weapons/ammo/boots/clothes/food rations Mobilizing Money • A. War cost $2.3 billion to U.S. • • 1. Raised taxes 2. War Bonds The War Industries Board A. formed to make war time decisions at home 1. decide what goods should be produced The Labor Force • A. Women had to work • 1. mills and factories • 2. assembly lines • 3. After war, they returned home • B. African-Americans from the South moved to North to work in factories • C. There was a shortage of workers during war • D. National War Labor Board • 1. settled labor disputes during war Mobilizing Minds • A. Many didn’t want war • 1. German Americans • 2. Conscientious objectors • 3. Pacifists Germanaphobia • 1. People hated Germans • 2. No German foods or traditions practiced in the U.S. (Ex: sauerkraut now is liberty cabbage) • 3. German-Americans changed their names • 4. Spy scares • 5. Could be arrested for making unpatriotic remarks The Attack on Civil Liberties • Illegal to speak against the war. OGT Multiple Choice • • • • • During the war, the right of free speech A. became greater B. became less C. was unaffected D. was respected by the United States government OGT Multiple Choice • The Selective Service Act of 1917 provided for • A. the draft of men between ages 21 and 31 • B. hiring substitutes to replace those not wishing to be drafted • C. draft dodgers to be tried for treason • D. drafting of women for medical and clerical jobs OGT Multiple Choice • _____(2005 Practice Test) Charles Schenck was found guilty of violating the 1917 Espionage Act by distributing leaflets through the mail urging men to resist induction under the military draft for World War I. On appeal, Schenck’s attorneys argued the distribution of the leaflets was protected by the 1st Amendment. The Supreme Court upheld his convictions. This case illustrates how individual rights can be balanced against • A. the rights of other individuals • B. the security of the nation in a time of war • C. The opportunities for people to enlist in the military • D. the interest of the gov. in keeping courts open to provide justice OGT Extended Response • During World War I, the United States government took away some rights of the people. • List and explain two of these rights taken away during time of war. • Is it right that the government took these rights away? Why or why not?