ECAC Vocabulary 2.4.12 • • • • • • • • • • Abstemious Enervate Fatuous Kowtow Infrastructure Obsequious Tempestuous Pecuniary Interpolate Bellicose (week 2/6/12) Infrastructure (noun) • in·fra·struc·ture/ˈinfrəˌstrəkCHər • the basic, underlying framework or features of a system or organization. • Synonyms: substructure – organization – setup – foundation – groundwork – frame • After the CEO left, the company’s infrastructure began slowly collapse. Abstemious (adjective) • ab·ste·mi·ous/abˈstēmēəs/ • Not self-indulgent, esp. when eating and drinking. • Synonyms: abstinent - temperate - moderate sober - sparing • Unlike the rest of her family, Cathy displayed abstemious behavior when eating dinner; she never cleaned her plate. Enervate (verb) • en·er·vate/ˈenərˌvāt • Cause (someone) to feel drained of energy. • Synonyms: enfeeble - weaken - debilitate unnerve – emasculate • Although he enjoyed his time as an emergency room nurse, the demanding work schedule enervated him to point of complete exhaustion. Fatuous (adjective) • • • • ͞ fat·u·ous/ˈfaCHooəs Silly and pointless. Synonyms: foolish - goofy - witless - idiotic Although being referred to as “ratchet” would be vexing for most people, she knew it was simply a fatuous saying that her friends would find boring within a month. Kowtow (verb) • kow·tow/ˈkouˈtou/ • Act in an excessively subservient manner. • Synonyms: kneel - bow – stoop – acknowledge • The narcissistic king required all of his subjects to kowtow before him as a sign of respect. Obsequious (adjective) • ob·se·qui·ous/əbˈsēkwēəs/ • Obedient or attentive to an excessive or servile degree. • Synonyms: servile - subservient - menial fawning - submissive – unctuous • It took years for the woman to overcome her obsequious tendencies that became habit while living with her overbearing husband. Tempestuous (adjective) ͞ • tem·pes·tu·ous/temˈpesCHooəs/ • 1.Characterized by strong and turbulent or conflicting emotion. • 2.Very stormy: "a tempestuous wind". • Synonyms: emotional - boisterous - gusty turbulent - wild – rough – stormy – intense • Teen love is often tempestuous and dramatic, so, of course, it makes the perfect subject for young adult novels. Pecuniary (adjective) • • • • ͞ pe·cu·ni·ar·y/piˈkyoonēˌerē/ Of, relating to, or consisting of money. Synonyms: monetary – financial – economic Because the political candidate did not address any pecuniary issues in the debate, she lost a large percentage of her voters. Interpolate (verb) • • • • in·ter·po·late/inˈtərpəˌlāt/ A. To insert into a text. B. To insert into a conversation. Synonyms: insert – interpose – interject – interrupt • Teachers do not appreciate the tendency of some students to interpolate during class discussion; raising your hand is most appropriate. bellicose (adjective) • bel·li·cose/ˈbeliˌkōs/ • Demonstrating aggression and willingness to fight. • Synonyms: warlike - combative - militant martial – belligerent – pugnacious • After becoming friends with Jim, Cheryl found out that his bellicose behavior at school was just a cover for the turmoil he was experiencing at home.