Plants Study Guide Label parts of the flower p.277 Auxin controls a plants response to light by speeding up the rate at which some cells grow. (T) Stamens are the male reproductive parts of flowers. (T) A conifer is a kind of angiosperm. (F – gymnosperm) Stomata open and close to control the flow of food. (F – gases) All seed plants have vascular tissue and produce seeds. The leaves of a fern are called fronds. Plants that produce seeds enclosed in a fruit are called angiosperms. Pollen is produced by male cones. A waxy, waterproof layer called a cuticle covers the leaves of most plants. All seed plants have roots, stems, and leaves. A plant that has a two-year life cycle is called a biennial. An example of positive phototropism is flowers growing to face the sun. Sepals protect developing flowers. In the sporophyte stage, plants produce spores. Ferns can be classified as seedless vascular plants. A fern is a vascular plant. The function of a rhizoid is to absorb water and nutrients from the soil. The process by which plants lose water through their leaves is transpiration. The vascular tissue through which food travels from the leaves to the stems and roots is called phloem. For plants to survive on land, they need all of the following except ways to live in a moist environment. Essay Describe the two different stages of a plants life cycle. o In the sporophyte stage, the plant produces spores that can grow into new plants. A spore develops into the plant’s other stage, called the gametophyte. In the gametophyte stage, the plant produces the gametes, which are sperm cells and egg cells. They join to form a zygote that develops into a sporophyte. Then the cycle begins again. On the lower surface of mature fronds, many ferns have structures that contain spores. What advantage for the fern might there be for the structures to be located there? o Having the spore-producing structures on a leaf’s lower surface leaves the upper surface free to gather light energy. The spores can more easily fall to the ground. The frond might protect the spore-producing structures from rain or other things that might fall on them. Describe why it is advantageous for seeds to be dispersed by pods that burst open rather than just dropping to the ground. o Seeds that are dispersed away from the parent plant do not have to compete with the parent for light, water, and nutrients Describe when a long-day plant produces flowers. o A long-day plant produces flower when nights are shorter than its critical night length.