Capitalization Rules RULE #1 • Capitalize the first word in every sentence. • Capitalize the first word of a directly quoted sentence. – Gwen asked, “How long did you study for the test?” • Traditionally, the first word in a line of poetry is capitalized RULE #2 Capitalize the pronoun “I”. Example: I am not sure what I’ll do tonight. Rule #3 Capitalize the interjection O. • The interjection O is most often used on solemn or formal occasions. Example: Protect us in the battle, O great Athena. Note: The interjection oh requires a capital letter only at the beginning of a sentence. Rule #4 Capitalize every word in the salutation and only the first word in the closing of a letter. Examples: Dear Lauren, To Whom It May Concern Sincerely yours, Yours truly, RULE #5 Capitalize proper nouns. – Names of persons – Geographical names – Names of organizations, teams, institutions, and government bodies – Names of historical events and periods, special events, and calendar items – Names of nationalities, races, and peoples ...more proper nouns – Businesses and brand names of business products – Names of ships, trains, airplanes, and spacecraft – Names of buildings and other structures – Names of monuments and awards ...and MORE proper nouns – Names of religions and their followers, holy days, sacred writings, and specific deities – Names of planets, stars, and other heavenly bodies Let’s practice! 1. The golden gate bridge spans san francisco bay. 2. Yosemite national park has the nation’s highest waterfall. 3. The peace corps became an agency of the government by an act of congress. More practice... 4. On august 4, 1984, upper volta, a nation in africa, changed its name to bourkina fassa. 5. He lives on east seventyeighth street in the state of pa. 6. Thousands of cherokee indians live in the smoky mountains. More practice... 7. To stop flooding in the south, the tennessee valley authority, a government agency, has built twentysix dams on the tennessee river and the streams that flow into it. 8. The first two states to be admitted to the united states were delaware and pennsylvania. More practice... 9. On new year’s day many fans crowd into football stadiums for the annual bowl games. 10. The rose bowl is the oldest of these bowl games. 11. A noted scholar, thomas jefferson, founded the university of virginia. RULE #6 Capitalize proper adjectives. Example: I went to a Mexican restaurant for dinner and then saw a Greek play. Change the proper nouns to proper adjectives.... 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Greece Mars Congress England Orient Proper Adjective Examples Proper Noun China Rome Islam King Arthur Shakespeare New Jersey Proper Adjective Chinese doctor Roman army Islamic culture Arthurian legend Shakespearean play New Jersey coast RULE #7 Do not capitalize the names of school subjects, except course names followed by a number and languages. RULE #8 Capitalize titles. • The title of a person when the title comes before a name or if the title is used in direct address. There will be a short address by Governor Halsey. Is the patient resting comfortably, Nurse? When can I play, Coach? *NOTE Generally, a title used alone or following a person’s name is not capitalized. • An attorney for the defense made a statement. • Is he the rabbi at the new synagogue? • He ran for governor in the last election. HOWEVER… Titles used alone or following a person’s name may be capitalized for clarity or special emphasis. • The Attorney General has served our state with distinction. • Ben Smith, Governor of Hawaii, delivered the keynote speech. • I turned on the television to watch the President’s speech. more titles... • A word showing a family relationship when the word is used before or in place of a person’s name UNLESS THE WORD FOLLOWS A POSSESSIVE NOUN OR PRONOUN. – I received a letter from Aunt Christina. – When will Mom and Dad be home? – My aunt Daphne coaches the team. more titles... • The first and last words and all important words in titles of books, magazines, newspapers, poems, short stories, movies, television programs, works of art, and musical compositions Unimportant words include prepositions of fewer than five letters, coordinating conjunctions, and articles. more titles... – Capitalize words referring to the Deity • Note: the word god is not capitalized when it refers to the gods of ancient mythology. Practice 1. During president Woodrow Wilson’s term, sheep grazed on the lawn of the White House. 2. Well, mom, have you met dr. Brinson? 3. Did you hear commissioner of education smather’s speech yesterday? 4. Was Carrie Fisher in return of the jedi?