Temperature: Fahrenheit, Celsius, and Kelvin

Fahrenheit, Celsius, and Kelvin
Learning Target
• Know the difference between Fahrenheit,
Celsius, and Kelvin temperature scales and how
to convert from one scale to another.
• Explain what is meant by Absolute Zero.
Famous Scientists Looking Good
What is the difference between heat
and temperature?
Heat (Thermal Energy) vs. Temperature
• Heat (Thermal Energy) = sum total of
all the KE of the particles in a sample.
It is an energy
• Temperature = measure of the
average KE of the particles. Measure
of thermal energy.
• The modern
thermometer used in
our class is filled with
colored alcohol.
Degrees Celsius
Peak emittance wavelength[65]
of black-body radiation
−273.15 °C
cannot be defined
100 pK
−273.149999999900 °C
29,000 km
450 pK
−273.14999999955 °C
6,400 km
0.001 K
−273.149 °C
273.16 K
0.01 °C
Water's boiling point[A]
373.1339 K
99.9839 °C
Incandescent lamp[B]
2500 K
≈2,200 °C
Sun's visible surface[D][69]
5,778 K
5,505 °C
28 kK
28,000 °C
16 MK
16 million °C
350 MK
350 million °C
2 GK
2 billion °C
3 GK
3 billion °C
350 GK
350 billion °C
1 TK
1 trillion °C
10 TK
10 trillion °C
1.417×1032 K
1.417×1032 °C
Absolute zero
(precisely by definition)
Coldest temperature
Coldest Bose–Einstein
One millikelvin
(precisely by definition)
Water's triple point
(precisely by definition)
Lightning bolt's
Sun's core[E]
Thermonuclear weapon
(peak temperature)[E][70]
Sandia National Labs'
Z machine[E][71]
Core of a high-mass
star on its last day[E][72]
Merging binary neutron
star system[E][73]
Relativistic Heavy
Ion Collider[E][74]
CERN's proton vs
nucleus collisions[E][75]
Universe 5.391×10−44 s
after the Big Bang[E]
2.89777 m
(radio, FM band)[68]
10,608.3 nm
(long wavelength I.R.)
7,766.03 nm
(mid wavelength I.R.)
1,160 nm
(near infrared)[C]
501.5 nm
(green-blue light)
100 nm
(far ultraviolet light)
0.18 nm (X-rays)
8.3×10−3 nm
(gamma rays)
1.4×10−3 nm
(gamma rays)[F]
1×10−3 nm
(gamma rays)
8×10−6 nm
(gamma rays)
3×10−6 nm
(gamma rays)
3×10−7 nm
(gamma rays)
1.616×10−27 nm
(Planck Length)[76]
Physical Properties that Depend on
Temperature Scales
• Fahrenheit (oF)
*Introduced in 1724
*Defined by 2 fixed points based on the properties of water (32freezing pt/212-boiling point)
*First modern thermometer (Hg)
• Celsius (oC)
*Introduced 18 years later (1742)
*Defined by setting freezing point of water to 0o and
boiling point to 100o
*Absolute zero in Celsius is -273.15o
• Kelvin
*Introduced 1848
*Zero point set to Absolute Zero
Converting Between Scales
Celsius and Fahrenheit
= 5/9(oF – 32)
9/5oC + 32
Converting Between Scales
Celsius and Kelvin
K= oC + 273
• Convert 32oF into Celsius (Proof of Concept)
• Convert 0oC into K
• Convert 580oF into K