VOCABULARY LIST 1 Definitions, synonyms, and etymologies. You will have a quiz on Friday testing your knowledge of synonyms and root words. HERCULEAN (HUR-KYUH-LEE-UN) Adjective tremendous in size strength, difficulty, or effort Synonyms: mighty, powerful, massive, immense, colossal (kuh-LOS-ul) Greek Mythology: The son of both a mortal woman and Zeus (King of the gods), Hercules was forced to perform near impossible tasks to make amends for being tricked into killing his own children. On your flashcard: write a sentence that meaningfully uses the vocabulary word PANDEMONIUM (PAN-DE-MOH-NEE-UM) noun utter confusion or wild uproar Synonyms: disorder, chaos, noisy confusion, tumult (TOO-mult) In the epic poem Paradise Lost: the name of the palace built in the middle of Hell, "the high capital of Satan and all his peers," coined by John Milton (1608-1674) from Greek pan- "all" + Latin daemonium "evil spirit" PANDER (PAN-DER) verb play up to another’s desires and weaknesses Synonyms: indulge, gratify, cater (Kay-ter) Character who procured for Troilus the love of Cressida in Troilus and Creseyde Basically, Pander set up “meetings” for these two in hopes of gaining political favor, so he played to Troilus’s weakness to get what he wanted CYNICAL (SIN-IH-KUL) adjective doubting the goodness and sincerity of human motives Synonyms: distrustful, sneering, derisive (dihRYE-siv) Derives from the Greek word for dog-like and dog (kynos) A group of philosophers who rejected much of what society told them was proper in order to live in “virtue of nature” STIGMA (STIG-MUH) noun mark of disgrace Synonyms: stain, taint (TAINT) Greek stigma (gen. stigmatos) "mark, puncture," especially one made by a pointed instrument, from root of stizein "to mark, tattoo," Figurative meaning "a mark of disgrace" is from 1610s. ROOT WORDS Fid – faith Fragile; fragment Mal – bad Malnutrition; malice Somn – to sleep Frag – to break Fidelity; confidence Insomnia; somnambulist (sleepwalker) Spec – to look Spectator; retrospect Root words are building blocks to functioning words. For example: One would not say he or she has fid in another. (This is silly.) One would say he or she has confidence in another.