Biology CH. 6- Advanced Genetics 6.1 Changes Affecting the Numbers of Chromosomes • Objectives: • Explain the difference between euploidy and aneuploidy • Discuss the advantage of polypoid organisms • Describe how nondisjunction affects the chromosome number Difference of Euploidy and Aneuploidy • Euploidy: the condition of having a chromosome number that is an exact multiple of the haploid number for that organism. • Triploids- Pg. 129 • Tetraploids- Pg. 129 • Aneuploidy: either lack chromosomes or have extra one. • Down Syndrom • Turner Syndrome • Klinefelter Syndrome • Trisomy X (XXX) • See Pg. 132 The Advantage of Polypoid Organisms • Read Page 131 to yourself quietly. Be ready for discussion • Benefits: Focus on 2nd to last paragraph, Pg. 131 How Nondisjunction Affects Chromosome Number 6.2 Mutations • Objectives: • Define Mutation • Compare and contrast the changes within a chromosome • Discus the differences between somatic and germ cell mutations Mutations • Any change in the DNA of an organism Changes within a chromosome and changes within a gene • Translocation- Two nonhomologous chromosomes exchange genetic information during meiosis. Pg. 133 • Deletion- Complete loss of a segment of the chromosome. Pg. 134 • Inversion- Segment of the chromosome breaks off and reattaches at the same position but with the genes in reverse order or inverted. Pg. 135 Changes within a chromosome and changes within a gene, Cont. • Substitution- occurs when nucleotide in the DNA sequence is removed and replaced with different nucleotide or when two nucleotides are inverted. Pg. 135 • Nucleotide Addition- extra nucleotide is placed in the DNA sequence. Pg. 135 • Nucleotide Deletion- Opposite of Addition, a nucleotide is removed from the DNA. Pg. 135 Differences between somatic and germ cell mutations • Somatic Mutation- occurs in the nongamete, or body, cells of the organism. Three possible Effects: • Produce an odd protein • Have no effect • Kill the cell • Germ Mutation- mutation in a gamete or a cell that forms gametes 6.3 Gene Expression • Objectives: • Define gene expression and cellular differentiation • Compare and Contrast molecular and environmental controls on gene expression • Explain the relationships between cancer and the functions of proto-oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes Define gene expression and cellular differentiation • Gene Expression- the activation of a gene that results in its transcription and the production of a specific protein • Cellular Differentiation- The specialization of cells that occurs during embryological development under the control of proteins Compare and Contrast molecular and environmental controls on gene expression • Pg. 138- 139, Read quietly to yourself. Be ready for discussion Relationships between cancer and the functions of proto-oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes • Tumor- abnormal mass of cells produced by abnormal cell division • Benign- cells of tumors that stay within the body of the tumor and do not spread • Malignant- cancerous tumors with cells that may spread (metastasize) • Carcinogen- any substance that increase the risk of cancer Relationships between cancer and the functions of proto-oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes, Cont. • Pg. 139-142 (skip brown box), Read quietly to yourself and be ready to discuss the topic in the above title. 6.4- The Gene Pool • Objectives: • Explain the difference between population and gene pool. • Discuss how mass selection, hybridization, and inbreeding affect the gene pool. • Describe desirable as well as undesirable effects of hybridization. Difference between population and gene pool • Population- Group of individuals of the same species that live in the same area. • Gene Pool- Sum of all alleles that all members of a species of an organism can conceivably possess Discuss how mass selection, hybridization, and inbreeding affect the gene pool • Mass Selection- the attempt to cultivate an existing trait… • Hybridization- crossbreeding of two genetically dissimilar individuals, crossing two varieties of the same species • Inbreeding- mating an organism with itself or close relatives. Produce pure strains • Pg. 143-144, Read quietly to yourself and be ready to discuss. Describe desirable as well as undesirable effects of hybridization. • Desirable: often healthier organisms and tend to suffer from fewer deformities that a purebred. Ex: Mutt (dog) • Undesirable: danger in having genetic uniformity among a large number of organisms, allowing the offspring to be much more vulnerable to environmental changes , viruses, etc. 6.5 Eugenics • Define Eugenics • Describe current methods of genetic screening • Describe two methods of artificial reproduction Define Eugenics • Eugenics: “Good Origins” or “Well Born”, the science that deal with improving the human race by applying principles of genetics Current Methods of Genetic Screening • Pedigree Analysis • Analysis of the Unborn • Analysis of the Newborn • See Pg’s. 148-149, Read quietly to yourself and be ready to discuss. Two methods of artificial reproduction • Artificial Insemination- the mechanical injection of sperm into a female’s body. • In Vitro Fertilization- Ova (female egg) is removed from the female’s body, fertilized in a laboratory by human sperm, and then implanted back into the woman’s body.