WW1 notes 2

Pink Flap: Nationalism in the Balkans
• At the turn of the century, European competition
between A-H and R focused on turbulent area of
SEE (southeastern Europe) known as the Balkan
• Mountainous region whose difficult terrain
resulted in distinct isolated ethnic groups
• Ottoman empire ruled BP—Non-European muslim
rule was resented by the largely Slavic (mostly
Christian) population
• Both A-H and R planned on taking BP from the
Turks, so an intense rivalry between A-H and R
• A-H annexed Slovenia and Croatia in the 1800’s,
occupied Bosnia by 1878. BP wanted independent
ethnic regions (Greece, Serbia, Montenegro,
Romania, Bulgaria and Albania all became
• Violent wars broke out about boundary disputes
• In 1908, A-H annexed Bosnia
• Bosnia’s population was Slavic Muslims, Serbs
and Croats
• Serbs wanted independence for the Slavs but
not for the Christian Croats
Now look at this
photo of his coat.
What happened
to him? Why?
Dark Pink Flap: Assassination of Archduke
Franz Ferdinand
• 6-28-14: Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand and
wife Sophie planned to visit Bosnian capital of
Sarajevo for a tour
• 6-28 was an anniversary for Serbs—lost battle of
Kosovo to the Turks in 1389 which resulted in
Turkish rule for 500 years
• 6-28 was the 14th wedding anniversary of
Archduke and Sophie—they planned a parade
• A Serbian nationalistic society known as the Black
Hand planned to assassinate the ADFF
– They hired 7 young Serbs to carry out plot
• Morning of 6-28-14 conspirators spread along
Apple Quay (parade route)
• 1st assassin said a policeman kept him from
throwing bomb
• 2nd lobbed his but it was deflected by ADFF, landed
in the crowd & exploded, injuring people
• ADFF’s car sped away past next 3 assassins and
arrived at City Hall
• ADFF wanted to go to hospital to see injured
people; his car made a wrong turn and got trapped
on a street
• 19 year old Gavrilo Princip stepped from curb and
shot ADFF in the neck and Sophie in the stomach—
they died instantly
Blue Flap: Austria-Hungary’s Ultimatum
• Outraged, on 7-23-14, A-H presented Serbia with an
ultimatum concerning the crime and demanded and
answer within 48 hours
• Germany had given A-H a “blank check” guaranteeing
its unconditional support no matter what happened
• Some Austrians wanted the ultimatum to be so severe
that Serbia would never agree to it and then they
could go to war and gain all of the BP
A. Supression of all anti A-H activity in Serbia
B. Dismissal of all Serbian officials to whom A-H objected
C. Right for A-H officials to enter Serbia to investigate
Serbian state complicity in the crime and carry out
suppression of all anti-A-H organizations
• Serbia agreed to A & B but would not compromise
independence on C
Whom do you think will be willing to
support Serbia? Why?
• Serbia had the full support of Russia in case war
broke out
• Serbia did NOT accept the full ultimatum
• A-H Consulted with Germany, its close Triple
Alliance Ally and declared war on Serbia July 28,
What will be
response to the
Declaration of
Why would
Germany react
this way?
How might this
effect a young
How would it
shape their view
of the world?
Green Flap: Alliance system leads to war
• Because of the system of Alliances, within one week
of Austria’s declaration of war, all of Europe was
plunged into action
• R supported Serbia (they didn’t want A-H to get BP)
• 7-30-14: R mobilized its armies and began moving
troops toward Germany’s and A-H’s borders
• G took this as an act of war and issued two
ultimatums to Russia
– Demobilization
– France must remain neutral
• France honored its 1892 Treaty of Mutual Defense
with R
• G declared war on R on August 1, 1914 and France on
August 3, 1914