Conner Paul Brandon Murray Edward Keller Written Summary Conner: o Arab Spring Overview. Wave of democratic, progressive revolutions throughout Northern Africa and the Middle East o Tunisia Immolation was the spark that started everything. It set off protests in Tunisia and eventually led to protests in other countries o In Tunisia these protests eventually led to an entirely new government and constitution based on equality. o Arab Spring Map o Causes of the Arab Spring were vast but involved various social and economic factors Brandon: Syria o Syrian Revolution Background Economic inequality has caused unrest in poorer areas of country. Sectarian divisions only added to the conflict Economic Policies started by Al-Assasd only furthered the economic divide Eventually Civil War broke out in the spring of 2011 involving multiple groups. Things had gone from peaceful protests to armed rebellion in a matter of months o Map of Islamic Secular Regions o Different Factions in Syria Syrian Government is ruled by Al-Assad and has the most Military force of any of the groups although it does not control the most land. Have the advantage of uncontested air-power Opposition. Control 30% of the territory but 60% of population Free Syria Army is a moderate rebel group led by General Salim Idris. Was the leading opposition group at the begining of the conflict but a string of setbacks have diminished their impact. The Islamic Front is an alliance of multiple rebel groups with the goal of creating an Islamic State in Syria. Much more moderate compared to ISIS. Jabhat al-Nusra is an Al-Qaeda affiliated rebel group that is considered to be one of the most powerful factions in the conflict. They’ve been deemed a terrorist organization by the United States ISIS/ISIL is a longstanding Al-Qaeda affiliate. Extremely conservative viewpoint with the goal to create an Islamic State. They employ vicious and brutal techniques to enforce law and intimidate opposition. The leading opposition force in the country. Fighting both the government and other rebel groups, they control much of the countries Oil and Gas production o The Death toll in the country has reached over 190,000 and many human rights violations have occurred. o The current situation in the country is dire with millions of refugees and POW’s. With the Aid of US and UN airpower, ISIS has recently retreated from certain locations but the conflict is far from over with its outcome uncertain. o The Economic Impact of the conflict is huge with over 50% of the population unemployed and many citizens displaced. Well-educated citizens have fled the country in most cases. Agricultural production has risen as a percentage of the country’s GDP. Edward: Egypt o The revolution occurred in 2011 in Egypt with thousands of people in the streets of Egypt’s Tahrir Square. The protests resulted in the successful government step down of President Hosni Mubarak. o Mohamed Morsi was elected President of the country in 2012 while resigning from the Muslim Brotherhood and Freedom and Justice Party. o Morsi gave himself unlimited powers, which lead to massive protests in Egypt. o Egyptian Military sided with the protestors and ousted Morsi o Violent clashes occurred during the aftermath of the coup d’etat o Elections were held with General Abdul Fatah winning with 97% of the popular vote o Egypt is still suffering an Economic downturn post-revolution GDP has slowed to 2.2% per year in 2012-2013 Unemployment has hovered around 13% with around 3.5 million Egyptians unemployed. Conner: o Overall Economic Impact over the Arab Spring has been extremely negative o The HSBC conducted an inquiry and found the effects of the revolutions have cost around $800 billion USD in addition to other more indirect effects o Future Outlook differs by country with some like Tunisia much more successful that others like Syria.