Conner Paul
Brandon Murray
Edward Keller
Written Summary
o Arab Spring Overview. Wave of democratic, progressive revolutions
throughout Northern Africa and the Middle East
o Tunisia Immolation was the spark that started everything. It set off
protests in Tunisia and eventually led to protests in other countries
o In Tunisia these protests eventually led to an entirely new
government and constitution based on equality.
o Arab Spring Map
o Causes of the Arab Spring were vast but involved various social and
economic factors
Brandon: Syria
o Syrian Revolution Background
 Economic inequality has caused unrest in poorer areas of
country. Sectarian divisions only added to the conflict
 Economic Policies started by Al-Assasd only furthered the
economic divide
 Eventually Civil War broke out in the spring of 2011 involving
multiple groups. Things had gone from peaceful protests to
armed rebellion in a matter of months
o Map of Islamic Secular Regions
o Different Factions in Syria
 Syrian Government is ruled by Al-Assad and has the most
Military force of any of the groups although it does not control
the most land. Have the advantage of uncontested air-power
 Opposition. Control 30% of the territory but 60% of
 Free Syria Army is a moderate rebel group led by General
Salim Idris. Was the leading opposition group at the begining
of the conflict but a string of setbacks have diminished their
 The Islamic Front is an alliance of multiple rebel groups with
the goal of creating an Islamic State in Syria. Much more
moderate compared to ISIS.
 Jabhat al-Nusra is an Al-Qaeda affiliated rebel group that is
considered to be one of the most powerful factions in the
conflict. They’ve been deemed a terrorist organization by the
United States
 ISIS/ISIL is a longstanding Al-Qaeda affiliate. Extremely
conservative viewpoint with the goal to create an Islamic
State. They employ vicious and brutal techniques to enforce
law and intimidate opposition. The leading opposition force in
the country. Fighting both the government and other rebel
groups, they control much of the countries Oil and Gas
o The Death toll in the country has reached over 190,000 and many
human rights violations have occurred.
o The current situation in the country is dire with millions of refugees
and POW’s. With the Aid of US and UN airpower, ISIS has recently
retreated from certain locations but the conflict is far from over with
its outcome uncertain.
o The Economic Impact of the conflict is huge with over 50% of the
population unemployed and many citizens displaced. Well-educated
citizens have fled the country in most cases. Agricultural production
has risen as a percentage of the country’s GDP.
Edward: Egypt
o The revolution occurred in 2011 in Egypt with thousands of people in
the streets of Egypt’s Tahrir Square. The protests resulted in the
successful government step down of President Hosni Mubarak.
o Mohamed Morsi was elected President of the country in 2012 while
resigning from the Muslim Brotherhood and Freedom and Justice
o Morsi gave himself unlimited powers, which lead to massive protests
in Egypt.
o Egyptian Military sided with the protestors and ousted Morsi
o Violent clashes occurred during the aftermath of the coup d’etat
o Elections were held with General Abdul Fatah winning with 97% of
the popular vote
o Egypt is still suffering an Economic downturn post-revolution
 GDP has slowed to 2.2% per year in 2012-2013
 Unemployment has hovered around 13% with around 3.5
million Egyptians unemployed.
o Overall Economic Impact over the Arab Spring has been extremely
o The HSBC conducted an inquiry and found the effects of the
revolutions have cost around $800 billion USD in addition to other
more indirect effects
o Future Outlook differs by country with some like Tunisia much more
successful that others like Syria.