Northern Europe PPT

Northern Europe
Physical Geography
Northern Europe is made up of five
countries: Norway and Sweden on the
Scandinavian Peninsula, Denmark on the
Jutland Peninsula, Finland in the eastern
part of the region, and the island country
of Iceland in the North Atlantic Ocean.
1 = Norway
2 = Sweden
3 = Finland
4 = Denmark
5 = Iceland
The Sub Region
Physical geography shaped by glaciers
and plate tectonic activity
 Cold northern climate has influenced the
lives of people in this sub region
Glaciation is the primary physical process by
which the landforms of Northern Europe came
to be as they are today.
During the last ice age, ice filled the valleys and
carved out fjords that are now filled with
seawater, creating steep, rugged mountains.
A fjord is a long, steep-sided glacial
valley now filled by seawater.
Scandinavian Peninsula
Jutland Peninsula
Scandinavian/Jutland Peninsulas
Scandinavian Peninsula: Norway,
Sweden, and part of Finland are on the
Scandinavian Peninsula. Surrounded by the
Barents Sea, Baltic Sea, Norwegian Sea,
and North Sea.
Jutland Peninsula: Denmark is on Jutland.
Surrounded by the North Sea and Baltic Sea
The country of
Denmark is on Jutland.
Mostly mountainous
 Glaciers from last ice age left thousands
of lakes (to include Sweden and Finland)
 Many deep fjords lie on the Atlantic
 Tectonic activity helped to form the
islands of Svalbard…located 400 miles
North of Norway
Like Norway, very mountainous up North
 In the South, lowlands slope gently to the
Baltic Sea
 Glaciers from last ice age left thousands
of lakes (to include Sweden and Finland)
Mostly flat with a few hills and mountains
 Over 10% covered with lakes and rivers
 Rugged coastline deeply indented with
bays and inlets
 Offshore dotted with thousands of small
 Glaciation helped to form Finland's
rugged topography
Located on Jutland Peninsula
 Includes Greenland, and Faeroe Islands
 Considered part of the cultural region of
 Glaciers deposited sand and gravel on
the Jutland’s flat western side and carved
fjords on the eastern coastline
 Flat plains make up most of the Jutland
Formerly a possession of Denmark
 621 miles west of Norway
 Sits on Mid-Atlantic Ridge (area of high
tectonic activity)
 Around 200 volcanoes
 Abundant geothermal energy and
hydropower from rivers and waterfalls
 Has numerous mountains
Countless hot springs, rivers, small lakes,
waterfalls, glaciers and geysers.
Geothermal Energy
A form of energy conversion that captures
heat energy from within the earth
Hot Spring
A spring whose water issues at a
temperature higher than that of its
A spring that throws forth intermittent jets
of heated water and steam.
Activity #1
Step 1: Among your groups, discuss some
of the physical processes that affect
Northern Europe, and list them on a sheet
of paper.
Step 2: The reporter from each group will
describe them to the class (everyone
must write them down).
Activity #2
In your notes handout, answer the
questions on the last page by using your
textbook (pages 270-272).
Activity # 3
Use the graphic organizer (on last page of
your notes handout) worksheet and list
the landforms, water systems, climate
regions, and resources of Northern
 Use the text book (pages 270-274).
Water systems
Glaciation left hundreds of thousands of lakes in
Northern Europe.
Iceland’s rivers consist of glacial debris, making them
Many of the rivers on the Scandinavian Peninsula
contain falls and rapids that hamper transportation
between cities.
The countries of Northern Europe harness the power of
these falls and rapids to run hydroelectric power plants.
Iceland Physical Map
Rivers in
Peninsula are:
Don’t provide easy
between cities
Stem from Norrland
Flow toward SE
Climates, Biomes, and Resources
The climate patterns and biomes of Northern Europe
are affected by latitude, landforms, wind patterns,
ocean currents, and distance from water.
Natural vegetation varies from forests to tundra
While the area has oil and natural gas resources, the
countries of the region are leaders in developing
renewable energy.
Climates, Biomes, and Resources
Finland’s most important resource are trees
Sweden has iron ore, copper, gold, lead and zinc. Forest
products are a major source of revenue. Also has much
hydroelectric power.
Norway one of the leaders in hydroelectric power.
Europe’s largest oil producer, and 2nd in the world for
natural gas production
Denmark has oil and natural gas, however, ranks #1 in
world for electricity generated from renewable sources,
such as wind energy.
Iceland has vast resources. Geothermal energy provides
heat, and steam for industrial energy and greenhouses
Natural Resources
Northern Europe Climates
Northern Europe Vegetation
North Atlantic Ocean Current