Consciousness - Ch. 6 (pp. 196

Consciousness - Ch. 6 (pp. 196-207 + class notes)
Section 1 - Consciousness
1. Consciousness is a person's SUBJECTIVE experience of the world and the mind.
1. This includes AWARENESS of surroundings + what is going on in one's mind and body,
and ORGANIZATION of thoughts, feelings, sensations, and behaviors.
2. Consciousness is a mental process.
2. States of consciousness...
1. Waking consciousness
2. Sleep and dreaming
3. Drug use
4. Hypnosis
5. Meditation
3. Levels of waking consciousness...
o Minimal consciousness: a person's mind inputs sensations, may output behavior
Full consciousness: alert & capable of reporting mental state
Self consciousness: a person's consciousness is directed at him or herself
Freudian unconscious: hidden memories; latent content; desires that are
Cognitive unconscious: implicit memories; mental experiences that are not experienced
by the person but give rise to his/her thoughts, feelings, or behaviors
Section 2 - Sleep and Dreams
1. A Circadian Rhythm is naturally occurring 24 hour bodily cycle.
2. Give an example of a reason why sleep is important for your:
i. Physical well-being: body restoration, pain sensitivity, immune system, metabolism
ii. Psychological well-being: mental sharpness, reaction time, memory, learning, mood
3. Describe how Freudian dream analysis is different than the Activation Synthesis Model of dream
No research supports Freudian (dreams contain hidden meaning that represent unconscious
conflicts and desires)
More contemporary approach: dreams are produced when the brain attempts to make sense of
activations that occur randomly during sleep; when you're sleeping there is no perceptual reality,
so your brain runs free.
Sleep disorders
sleepwalking / somnambulism
night terrors
sleep apnea
Section 3 - Other Altered States of Consciousness
1. Hypnosis is an altered state of consciousness characterized by SUGGESTIBILITY and the
feeling that one's actions are occurring INVOLUNTARILY.
2. Psychoactive drugs are CHEMICALS that influence consciousness by altering the brain's
chemical messaging system - neurotransmitters.