Have you ever had to PLEA your case to mom & dad before? What makes for a SUCCESSFUL argument? What makes for an UNsuccessful argument? The Structure of Argument *Classical Argumentative Scheme (parts II and III may be interchanged) Part I: Introduction Catch interest (hook) Present issue with concrete image or anecdote Provide relevant background information/Define terms State claim (thesis) Part II: Concession and Refutation Acknowledge opposing viewpoints (speaks to credibility) Recognize and argue against opposing viewpoints (“yes, but”-> concession, refutation) Part III: Confirmation Paragraphs (longest and most important section) Provide reasons and evidence Show logical development of the argument Include logical reasons as well as emotional appeals to human needs or values Part IV: Conclusion Wrap up the argument but refrain from repeating information Restate the claim or thesis Provide a new appeal to needs or values & enrich Voice a final plea to readers/listeners to take action or to change thinking Parts of the Argument Claim(s) / Thesis / Position Statement A claim is a statement of a position. A claim is an arguable statement, not a statement of verifiable fact. Someone could disagree with another’s claims. Qualifiers Limit the claim and protect the credibility of the writer In the real world, there are few absolutes. Words such as everyone, all, never and always are problematic because the audience can typically find exceptions Qualifiers are usually adverbs that modify the verb in the claim or adjectives that modify a key noun; some common ones are typically, usually, for the most part, some, several, few, and sometimes. Support The examples, facts, and data that aid in proving the claim's validity Depending on the audience, this evidence could also include emotional appeals, quotations from famous people or recognized experts, or statements based on the writer’s personal credibility. Concession / Conceding a Point Bring differing opinions together by acknowledging a part of the opposing argument that cannot be refuted Conceding that an opposing point is valid and then building upon it to further one's own claim allows a writer to make the audience feel appreciated without giving up her or his own position. Rebuttal/ Refutation If the writer can discredit the opposition’s claims by showing that the opposition’s logic is faulty or its support is weak, he or she has created a rebuttal that supports his or her own original position and furthers his or her claim.