The Red Scare • Following WWI, identify those factors in that led directly to a Red Scare in the U.S. (Why was the U.S. ripe for a Red Scare at the time?) Following WWI, the United States: • The enemy = Foreign anarchists and communists • The solution = The Palmer Raids • The Result • ?????? Objectives At the end of this lesson you should be able to: • Identify the Red Scare • List 3 characteristics of bolshevism and why its spread was feared by Americans • Identify Mitchell Palmer and describe his policies to ‘defend’ America • Identify at least 3 separate examples of labor unrest in 1919, the reasons why they came about, the outcome Palmer Raids Presentation • A. What behavior did he exhibit? • B. What prompted the behavior? • C. Did the public support or oppose Palmer’s actions? • D. What is your view of Palmer’s actions from today’s perspective? • E. Can you envision a situation where you may feel differently? Galleani (bottom) Bombing at Washington D.C. home of Attorney-General Palmer Literary Digest, 6/14/19 Political Spectrum and Palmer Where do most Americans fall on the spectrum? What types of groups may have helped someone as extreme as Palmer gain credibility? Labor Unrest • Post War Recession • High inflation, low pay, poor working conditions • > 3, 600 strikes in 1919 • What did they want? • Were they successful? Seattle General Strike Presentation • Began in shipyard (35, 000 workers) • War-time wage-freeze was not lifted • 110 other unions sympathized and shut down the city • Mayor Ole Hanson armed his police force and threatened martial law and federal troops • Arrested IWW leaders • Closed the Union Record (labor-owned daily newspaper) • Broke the strike within 1 week Political Spectrum concerning S.G.S Radical IWW Moderate AFL Reactionary Press Gov't US Steel Strike • Working Conditions • Worked 24 hours straight each time worker changed from day to night shift • Union wanted one day’s rest • Elbert Gary (head of US Steel) refused • Got press to portray strikers as radicals • Provoked riots, hired police/soldiers to break up strikers, raided meetings • 18 strikers killed • None of union demands were met Coal Strike • Only lasted 1 month (fall of 1919) • President Wilson ordered them back to work • None of their demands were met Boston Police Strike • Labeled as “Bolshevistic” by press • Theft, looting were rampant • Coolidge-”There is no right to strike against the public safety by anybody, anywhere, anytime.” Conclusion • The propaganda launched by George Creel and the Committee of Public Safety taught Americans to hate the Germans. This hatred was transferred to a new enemy, radicals. Over 6, 000 citizens and immigrants, some guilty, some not, were denied their rights and deported or worse. Labor unions, portrayed in the press as being controlled by radicals, met with little or no success.