Erikson's stages of psychosocial development From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Erikson's stages of psychosocial development were developed by Erk Erikson and describe eight development stages through which a healthily developing human should pass from infancy to late adulthood. In each stage the person confronts, and hopefully masters, new challenges. Each stage builds on the successful completion of earlier stages. The challenges of stages not successfully completed may be expected to reappear as problems in the future. Age Psychosoc Significant ial crisis relations 0-1, trust vs Infant mistrust mother Psychosoc. modalities Psychosoci al virtues to get, to give hope, faith in return Maladaptations/ malignancies sensory distortion, withdrawal Età Crisi psisociale 0-1, Fiducia vs Infant sfiducia o diffidenza Relazioni significat. madre Modalità psicosociali Dare e ricevere Virtù psisociali Speranza fede Disadattamento negatività Distorsione sensoriale rinchiudimento Stage 1: Infancy -- Age 0 to 1 Crisis: Trust vs. Mistrust Description: In the first year of life, infants depend on others for food, warmth, and affection, and therefore must be able to blindly trust the parents (or caregivers) for providing those. Positive outcome: If their needs are met consistently and responsively by the parents, infants not only will develop a secure attachment with the parents, but will learn to trust their environment in general as well. Negative outcome: If not, infant will develop mistrust towards people and things in their environment, even towards themselves. 2-3, Toddler autonomy vs shame and doubt 3-6, Preschoo initiative vs guilt ler par to hold on, ents to let go will, impulsivity, determinat compulsion ion fami to go after, ly to play purpose, courage ruthlessness, inhibition 2-3, Primi passi Autonomia vs vergogna o dubbio geni Trattenere tori o lasciar andare Volontà, determina zione Impulsività compulsione 3-6, Prescol. Iniziativa vs colpa fami imitare glia giocare Proposta coraggio Avventatezza inibizione Stage 2: Toddler -- Age 1 to 2 Crisis: Autonomy (Independence) vs. Doubt (or Shame) Description: Toddlers learn to walk, talk, use toilets, and do things for themselves. Their self-control and self-confidence begin to develop at this stage. Positive outcome: If parents encourage their child's use of initiative and reassure her when she makes mistakes, the child will develop the confidence needed to cope with future situations that require choice, control, and independence. Negative outcome: If parents are overprotective, or disapproving of the child's acts of independence, she may begin to feel ashamed of her behavior, or have too much doubt of her abilities. Stage 3: Early Childhood -- Age 2 to 6 Crisis: Initiative vs. Guilt Description: Children have newfound power at this stage as they have developed motor skills and become more and more engaged in social interaction with people around them. They now must learn to achieve a balance between eagerness for more adventure and more responsibility, and learning to control impulses and childish fantasies. Positive outcome: If parents are encouraging, but consistent in discipline, children will learn to accept without guilt, that certain things are not allowed, but at the same time will not feel shame when using their imagination and engaging in make-believe role plays. Negative outcome: If not, children may develop a sense of guilt and may come to believe that it is wrong to be independent. 7-12, età scolare intrapresa vs inferiorità Vicinato scuola 12-18, Adolesc. Identità dell’io Gruppo dei vs confusione pari, di ruolo modelli di ruolo Portare a termine fare cose insieme comp etenz a Virtuosità o inerzia Essere se stessi, Fedelt Fanatismo condividere il à ripudio proprio io lealtà Stage 4: Elementary and Middle School Years -- Age 6 to 12 Crisis: Competence ("Industry") vs. Inferiority Description: School is the important event at this stage. Children learn to make things, use tools, and acquire the skills to be a worker and a potential provider. And they do all these while making the transition from the world of home into the world of peers. Positive outcome: If children can discover pleasure in intellectual stimulation, being productive, seeking success, they will develop a sense of competence. Negative outcome: If not, they will develop a sense of inferiority. Stage 5: Adolescence -- Age 12 to 18 Crisis: Identity vs. Role Confusion Description: This is the time when we ask the question "Who am I?" To successfully answer this question, Erikson suggests, the adolescent must integrate the healthy resolution of all earlier conflicts. Did we develop the basic sense of trust? Do we have a strong sense of independence, competence, and feel in control of our lives? Adolescents who have successfully dealt with earlier conflicts are ready for the "Identity Crisis", which is considered by Erikson as the single most significant conflict a person must face. Positive outcome: If the adolescent solves this conflict successfully, he will come out of this stage with a strong identity, and ready to plan for the future. Negative outcome: If not, the adolescent will sink into confusion, unable to make decisions and choices, especially about vocation, sexual orientation, and his role in life in general. 20-45, Young adult intimacy vs isolation partners, friends 30-65, Middle aged adult generativity vs selfabsorption household to make be, to take cocare of workers overextens car ion, e rejectivity 50+, Old adult integrity vs despair mankind or 'my kind' wis presumptio do n ,despair m to lose and find oneself in another to be, through having been, to face not being lov promiscuity e exclusivity partners, amici Promiscuit Perdere am à o trovare se stessi in ore esclusività un altro 20-45, giovane adulto Intimità vs isolamento 30-65, adulto di mezza età Generatività Compagni Far vs di lavoro o esistere,prendersi fagocitazione profession cura di e Ca re (st ab) Sovraesten sione, attegg. rifiuto 50+, Adulto anziano integrità vs disperazione sa gg ez za Presunzion e, disperazio ne Genere umano o la mia razza Essere, sfidare il non essere Stage 6: Young Adulthood -- Age 19 to 40 Crisis: Intimacy vs. Isolation Description: In this stage, the most important events are love relationships. No matter how successful you are with your work, said Erikson, you are not developmentally complete until you are capable of intimacy. An individual who has not developed a sense of identity usually will fear a committed relationship and may retreat into isolation. Positive outcome: Adult individuals can form close relationships and share with others if they have achieved a sense of identity. Negative outcome: If not, they will fear commitment, feel isolated and unable to depend on anybody in the world. Stage 7: Middle Adulthood -- Age 40 to 65 Crisis: Generativity vs. Stagnation Description: By "generativity" Erikson refers to the adult's ability to look outside oneself and care for others, through parenting, for instance. Erikson suggested that adults need children as much as children need adults, and that this stage reflects the need to create a living legacy. Positive outcome: People can solve this crisis by having and nurturing children, or helping the next generation in other ways. Negative outcome: If this crisis is not successfully resolved, the person will remain self-centered and experience stagnation later in life. Stage 8: Late Adulthood -- Age 65 to death Crisis: Integrity vs. Despair Important Description: Old age is a time for reflecting upon one's own life and its role in the big scheme of things, and seeing it filled with pleasure and satisfaction or disappointments and failures. Positive outcome:If the adult has achieved a sense of fulfillment about life and a sense of unity within himself and with others, he will accept death with a sense of integrity. Just as the healthy child will not fear life, said Erikson, the healthy adult will not fear death. Negative outcome: If not, the individual will despair and fear death. All of the stages in Erikson's epigenetic theory are present at birth, but unfold according to an innate plan, with each stage building on the preceding stages, and paving the way for subsequent stages. Each stage is characterized by a psychosocial crisis, which is based on physiological development, but also on demands put on the individual by parents and/or society. Ideally, the crisis in each stage should be resolved by the ego in that stage, in order for development to proceed correctly. The outcome of one stage is not permanent,but can be altered by later experiences. Everyone has a mixture of the traits attained at each stage, but personality development is considered successful if the individual has more of the "good" traits than the "bad" traits. Ego Psychology Erikson's theory of ego psychology holds certain tenets that differentiate his theory from Freud's. Some of these include: •The ego is of utmost importance. •Part of the ego is able to operate independently of the id and the superego. •The ego is a powerful agent that can adapt to situations, thereby promoting mental health. •Social and sexual factors both play a role in personality development. Erik Erikson and Identity Crisis Are you confused about the direction of your life? Don't know who you are? Can't decide on where you stand in terms of philosophy of life? Fail to see your role in life? You are probably experiencing an "identity crisis". According to Erikson's stages, the onset of the identity crisis is in the teenage years, and only individuals who succeed in resolving the crisis will be ready to face future challenges in life. But the identity crisis may well be recurring, as the changing world demands us to constantly redefine ourselves. Erikson suggested that people experience an identity crisis when they lose "a sense of personal sameness and historical continuity". Given today's rapid development in technology, global economy, dynamics in local and world politics, identity crises are expected to be more common now than 30 years ago, when Erikson formed his theory. If you find yourself (again) in an identity crisis, you can look at seven areas of difficulty in which to work towards a resolution. •Time Perspective Can you distinguish immediate gratification from long-term goals? Have you learnt to balance between jumping at opportunities as soon as they are presented to you and working steadily and patiently towards your long-term goal? •Self-Certainty Do you feel consistent in your self-image and the image you present to others? •Role Experimentation Have you tried different roles in search of the one that feels right to you? •Anticipation of Achievement. Do you believe that you will be successful in what you choose to do -- whether your role is at the work front or home front? •Sexual Identity Do you feel comfortable being a male or a female, and dealing with others as such? •Leadership polarization Are you able to become both a leader and a follower, whichever is called for in a given situation? •Ideological convictions Have you found a set of basic social, philosophical, or religious values that your outlook on life can be based upon?