Chemistry Study Guide 1. What makes up an atom? • Atoms are made of protons, neutrons and electrons 2. How is an atom and element related? • An atom is the smallest unit of an element and an element contains atoms that are all identical. 3. What is a chemical reaction and how are reactants and products involved? • A substance is changed into one or more new substances. Reactants combine to form products. 4. What is an ionic bond? • An ionic bond is when one ore more electrons are transferred to another atom. The change in the atoms’ charges cause the ions to be attracted. 5. What is a covalent bond? • A covalent bond is when one or more electrons are shared. 6. What does organic chemistry mean? • Organic chemistry is the chemistry of carbon and life. 7. What is the chemical formula for water? • The chemical formula for water is H2O. • Draw the structure of a water molecule. 8. What is polarity and explain how water is a polar molecule. • A polar molecule has a slightly positive charge at one end and a slightly negative charge at the other end. • Water is slightly negative around the oxygen and slightly positive near the hydrogens. 9. What is a hydrogen bond and what causes it? • A hydrogen bond is when a hydrogen molecule is attracted to a slightly negative atom. 10. What is cohesion? • Cohesion is when similar molecules are attracted to each other. • Water molecules are attracted to other water molecules. 11. What is adhesion? • Adhesion is when different molecules are attracted to each other. • Water molecules are attracted to other molecules. 12. What is a solution? • A solution is a mixture where a solute is dissolved in a solvent. 13. What is a solute? • A solute is a substance the is dissolved in a solvent. 14. What is a solvent? • A solvent is a substance that dissolves another substance. 15. What is an acid? • Acids are substances that are proton donors (hydrogen ions) or electron acceptors • Have a pH between 0 and 7 • Vinegar, Lemon Juice and stomach fluids. 16. What is a base? • A base is a substance that is a proton acceptor (hydrogen ions) or electron donor. • Has a pH between 7 and 14 • Tums, Soap and Ammonia 17. What is a pH Scale? • A pH scale shows how acidic or basic an substance is based on a concentration of hydrogen ions.