What is terrorism? What are the social and political effects of terrorism? Why do non-state groups choose terrorism as a form of political action? Why do states use terrorism? Definitions: What is terrorism? Non-state terrorist groups and their aims Who gets labelled a terrorist? Who doesn’t? The efficacy of terrorism State-sponsored terrorism “The state is an entity which claims a monopoly on the legitimate use of violence.” (Max Weber) Rejects the notion that only states can legitimately use violence. Is the use of violence to achieve political objectives Different from other forms of violence because it’s never aimed just at the people it harms Designed to have far-reaching psychological effects Terrorist attacks are designed to gain maximum publicity. Media coverage amplifies psychological effect. Targets are often symbolic or iconic: the goal is to gain attention for a cause and destroy what the target stands for, not to eliminate the object itself. Example: The Terrorism is often a tool of nonstate groups who do not control armies or vast armories. It is cost-effective violence for small groups. Sendoro Luminoso FARC: Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia Islamic Non-Islamic Al-Qaeda ETA Hamas Red Brigades Hezbollah FARC Shining Path KKK Weather Underground Often formed in refugee camps Can be organized around religion or political ideology (eg Marxism, nationalism) Soldier in a FARC poppy field Narcotics Remittances Natural resources Covert State Funding Soldier in a FARC poppy field Terrorism is a technique, not a property intrinsic to groups. The label “terrorist” is meant to label some people’s use of violence illegitimate (while others’ use of violence is made legitimate.) States often label non-state groups terrorists, while claiming their own violent action is an acceptable use of force. The label itself is a political tool. Hamas Controversy US has put Hamas on official list of terrorist groups. Hamas is now the democratically elected government of the Gaza Strip. Should the US be willing to have diplomatic relations? B Can create chaos and discord in society Can weaken political institutions Can force the state to incur huge costs to prevent terrorism Police Intelligence Disaster preparedness US wars in Afghanistan and Iraq=$4 trillion Often creates citizen support for the state Can strengthen the resolve of target governments Fosters a powerful backlash against the non-state group Arab Spring and the irrelevance of alQaeda. The attempt by a state to use violence against civilians to win political conflict with non-state groups. Practiced byauthoritarian states and in breakaway regions. Can be state-sponsored terrorism against third countries Example: Libya and the Lockerbie bombing 1700s—absorbed into Russian empire 1930s—Stalinist purges kill many 1944—entire Chechen population deported 1957—allowed to return 1992—Chechen declaration of independence 1994 and 1999—Chechen wars Today—ongoing kidnappings and shootings Terrorism is a political tool It can be used by both state and non-state actors The monopoly of legitimate violence is being challenged in the post Cold War World.