Chapter 7: Memory
Case Study: H.M. and His Missing Memories
Section 1: Memory Classifications and Processes
Section 2: Three Stages of Memory
Section 3: Forgetting and Memory Improvement
Case Study: H.M. and His Missing Memory
Brain surgery that cured H.M. of seizures left him with severe memory loss.
Cause for the Surgery
• H.M. underwent brain surgery to reduce epileptic seizures.
• Temporal lobe surgery is now rare.
• Today we know that the temporal lobe has an important function in memory, speech, and hearing.
Results of the Surgery
• H.M. was unable to transfer information from his short-term memory to his long-term memory.
• His ability to remember nonverbal information was severely impaired.
Section 1 at a Glance
Memory Classifications and Processes
• Memory can be classed as explicit or implicit. Two main types of explicit memory are episodic and semantic.
• Memory of sensory input involves three distinct functions: encoding, storage, and retrieval.
Memory Classifications and Processes
Memory is the process of encoding, storing, and retrieving information. Memory includes factual and general information, experiences of events, and skills.
• What are the three kinds of memory?
• How does encoding of memories work?
• What are the processes of memory storage?
What factors affect memory retrieval
Three Kinds of Memory
• _________________ is the process by which we recollect prior experiences and information and skills learned in the _________
• There are three different kinds of memory.
• Episodic memory is memory of a _________________________
• A ___________________ memory is a memory of an important and intense event.
• Examples of flashbulb memory: the memory of the terrorist attacks of
__________ and the assassination of ______________
• Semantic memory is the memory of ___________, words, and concepts.
• Episodic and semantic memories are both examples of explicit memory which is a memory of _________________ information.
• Implicit memory is memory of things that are _____________, or not clearly stated. (practiced skills and learned habits ) (throwing ball)
• Skills learned often stay with people for a lifetime, even if they do not use them very often.
The translation of information into a form in which it can be ________is called encoding and is the _____________ stage of processing information
Visual and Acoustic Codes
• One type of code is visual.
• visual codes- forming a ______________ picture.
• Another type of code is acoustic.
• acoustic codes use _______________
• Another type of code is semantic.
• A semantic code represents information in terms of its
____________________.(try to make sense of something) (ROY G BIV)
(Every Good Boy Does Fine)
• Storage is the maintenance of ______________ information and is the
__________ process of memory.
• maintenance rehearsal is learning by ____________________. (not
• More you repeat the longer you _______________________.
• It does not connect information to past learning and is therefore a poor way to put information in permanent storage.
• A more effective way to remember new information is to ______________ it to information you already know.
• elaborative rehearsal relates ________ info to info you already ___________
• It is widely used in ___________________
• Example: use a new word in a sentence
• Stored memories become organized and arranged in the mind for future use.
• Mind is like a ________ ___________
• Your memory organizes information into classes according to common features.
• Our ability to remember is subject to error.
• Errors can occur because we file information ________________
• Retrieval consists of __________________ stored information and returning it to conscious ________________. (________ stage of processing info)
• Context-dependent memories are more easily retrieved in the context or
_________________ in which it was encoded and stored.
• Such memories are dependent on the place where they were encoded and stored.
State-Dependent Memory state-dependent memories. are retrieved because the _________ in which they were originally encoded is recreated
• Memory is better when people are in the same mood as when the information was acquired.
On the Tip of the Tongue
• Trying to retrieve memories that are not very well organized or are incomplete can be highly frustrating.
• Sometimes we are so close to retrieving the information that it seems as though the information is on the “tip of the tongue.”
• Psychologists call this phenomenon the feeling-of-knowing experience.
Current Research in Psychology
Unreliable Memories, Unreliable Witnesses
“Misleading details can be planted into a person’s memory for an event that actually occurred. It is also possible to plant entirely false memories,” according to Elizabeth Loftus and Daniel Bernstein (Bernstein et al., 2005).
• Loftus has shown that false memories exist and also that feeling sure about a memory does not prove the memory is a reliable one.
• One factor in false memory is source confusion.
• If a person has a “gist trace” of a memory rather than a “verbatim” trace, the memory is likely to be false or inaccurate.
• Psychological research is helping train police investigators to avoid using interviewing techniques that can mislead witnesses.
One example is pressing for more additional details when a witness has already expressed uncertainty
Section 2 at a Glance
Three Stages of Memory
• In sensory memory, each of the senses records its input in a distinct register.
• Sense data that receive attention are retained in short-term memory.
• Information from short-term memory can be stored in long-term memory if it is encoded and linked to other stored information.
• Information can be quickly retrieved from long-term memory because longterm memory is structured, or organized.
Three Stages of Memory
The three stages of memory storage are sensory input, short-term or working memory, and long-term memory.
• What are the three types of sensory memory?
• How does short-term memory work?
• How do schemas affect long-term memory?
• Sensory memory is the __________stage of information storage.
• It consists of the immediate, _____________ recording of data that enter through the __________________.
• Psychologists believe that each of the ______ senses has a register.
• Mental pictures we form of visual stimuli are called ___________, which are held in a sensory register called ________________ memory. (brief)
• The rare ability to remember visual stimuli over long periods of time is called ____________ ___ imagery.
• Mental traces of sounds are held in a mental sensory register called
_________________ memory, short-term memory is memory that holds information briefly before it is either stored in long-term memory or is
The Primacy and Recency Effects
• The primacy effect is the tendency to recall the ___________ item or items in a series.
• The tendency to recall the last item or items in a series is called the
• There is no definitive explanation of the primacy effect or the recency effect.
• The organization of items into __________________ or manageable units is called chunking. (avg. short-term memory can hold ________________ items)
• Interference occurs when _______ information appears in short-term memory and takes the _____________ of what was already there.
• temporary solution to the problem of remembering information.
• bridge between sensory memory and long-term memory.
• Long-term memory is the third and final stage of information storage.
• It is capable of large and relatively __________________storage.
Memory as Reconstruction
• Memories are not recorded and played back like videos or _____________
• They are reconstructed from our experiences.
• We shape memories according to the ____________________ and individual ways in which we view the world.
• We tend to remember things in accordance with our beliefs and needs.
• Schemas are the ______________ representations that we form of the world by organizing bits of information into ____________
• Schemas influence the ways we perceive things and the ways our memories store what we perceive.
Capacity of Memory
• Psychologists have not yet discovered a _____________ to how much can be stored in a person’s long-term memory.
• We do not store all of our experiences ____________________
• Our memory is limited by the amount of ______________________we pay to things.
• The memories we store in long-term memory are the incidents and experiences that have the greatest impact on us.
Section 3 at a Glance
Forgetting and Memory Improvement
• The three basic remembering tasks are recognition, recall, and relearning.
• Much of what we think of as remembering actually involves reconstructing ideas based on associations.
• Forgetting, or memory failure, can be caused by a malfunction in encoding, storage, or retrieval.
• Forgetting can occur at any stage of memory.
• Knowledge of how remembering and forgetting occur has led to practical techniques for improving memory.
Forgetting and Memory Improvement
The three tasks of remembering are recognition, recall, and relearning. Failure of any of these results in forgetting.
• How does forgetting happen?
• What are the three basic memory tasks?
• How are the three ways of forgetting different?
• What are some techniques for improving memory?
• Forgetting can occur at any one of the ___________ stages of memory.
• sensory memory info decays almost immediately unless it is transferred into ___________ ____________ _______________
• Short-term memory will disappear after only _____ to _______ seconds unless it is transferred into long-term memory.
• Information stored in short-term memory is lost when it is
___________________by new information.
• The most familiar and significant cases of forgetting involve the inability to use information in long-term memory.
Basic Memory Tasks
• Recognition is one of the three basic memory tasks and involves identifying _______________ or ________________ that have been encountered before.(easiest memory task)
• Recall is the second memory task and involves bringing something
__________to mind that you don’t immediately recognize
• In recall, you do not immediately recognize something you have come across before.
• You have to “search” for it and possibly reconstruct it in your mind.
• The third basic memory task is relearning.
Relearning involves learning something a ____________________time (takes less time than original)
Different Kinds of Forgetting
• Much forgetting is due to interference or decay.
• Interference occurs when ________ information takes the place of what has been placed in ________________
• Decay is the _____________ away of a memory over __________
• Both are part of normal forgetting.
• There are more extreme kinds of forgetting.
• ____________ says we sometimes forget things on purpose without knowing it because some memories are painful and unpleasant.
• He called this kind of forgetting repression – forgetting painful or unpleasant things on __________________
• Amnesia is severe __________________ loss, which is often caused by trauma to the _______________
• People with ____________________ amnesia forget the period leading up to a traumatic event.
• Memory loss of events after trauma is called
• Retrograde amnesia and anterograde amnesia are extreme and rare.
• One type of amnesia that everyone experiences is infantile amnesia – forget events before age _______
• Infantile amnesia is based on biological and cognitive factors.
Drill and Practice
• Drill and practice, or repetition, is one way to remember information.
• It is an effective way to transfer information from sensory memory to shortterm memory and from short-term memory to long-term memory.
Relate to Existing Knowledge
• Elaborative rehearsal—relating new information to what you already know—is another way to improve memory.
Form Unusual Associations
• Memory can be enhanced by forming unusual associations.
Use Mnemonic Devices
• Mnemonic devices combine chunks of information into a catchy or easily recognizable format.