Chapter 3 – New France: A Royal Government (1663

Chapter 3 - Outline
1. Day One: Establishment of Royal Colony &
Royal Government
2. Day Two: Colonial Government in New
France, Royal Government Structure &
Important Officials
3. Day Three: Seigneurial System, Women &
Life in New France
4. Day Four: Church in New France
Royal Colony: 1663
Why did France make New
• The Company of Habitants
were in debt (owed money)
and couldn’t pay for the
colonies expenses
• The Iroquois attacked the
colony and blocked fur trade
King Louis XIV • He was the King of France
• He was in power from 1643
to his death in 1675, making
him the longest monarch to
hold power in Europe.
• When he was in power
France was one of the most
powerful countries in
• He made New France a
Royal Colony
Absolute Monarchy
What is a Absolute
• They have unlimited power over
their people and were not
restricted by a set of rules
(constitution) or a group of people
They believe their power and right
to rule comes from GOD.
They were suppose to govern their
People had no control or influence
over government decisions.
The King appointed
groups/councils that made
decisions for the King
Absolute Monarchy
Three Characteristics of an Absolute Monarch
1. The people in the Government are selected
by the Monarch
2. One person (the King) has the power to make
the decisions
3. Majority Rules does not exist  Minority
Rule does exist
1. Absolute Selection
The King selects the
people who are allowed
to participate in
government. They are
the King’s advisors.
They had influence on
the king but he did not
have to listen to them.
2. Absolute Power
 The King believes his power to
rule over the people is inherited
from his ancestors
 They have the final decision on
matters, but ruling a country is
a lot of work. The King lets
others make decisions for him.
If he didn’t like their decisions
they would be fired and
 In New France, the governing
officials had a lot of political
power. WHY? (see page 45)
3. Minority Rule Definition: Minority rule is
when a small majority of
the country controls a
country. An absolute
monarchy is an example of
Minority Rule because the
King controlled
everything. A democratic
government is an example
of Majority Rule.
Day 2 –
Colonial Government and Important
Government Officials
Topics Today:
Jean Baptiste Colbert
Women of New France
The Colonial Government
Government Structure
Government Officials
Jean – Baptiste Colbert
Who is he?
He was appointed by King Louis
XIV and one of his advisors.
What was his responsibility:
He was in charge of France’s
economy and made decisions
concerning France’s colonies.
He was interested
mercantilism and attaining
raw materials.
Improving the Royal Colony
Increase Population:
• Government grants were given to
families that had more than 10
• Monetary ($$) rewards were given to
couples who marry early (under 20 for
men – under 16 for women)
• The French Government paid the
expenses for 4000 people to
immigrate to New France. 1000 were
single women called the filles du roi
(The King’s Daughters).
• Militia companies were formed to help
protect the colony.
• The French Army attacked the
Iroquois villages – which lead to
negotiations and peace for 20 years.
Colonial Government
The Colonial Government had more power
than government officials in France:
• It sometimes took 6-7 months for
communication to reach N/F. This gave
local officials more power.
• The Senior members of the government
were the Governor General, Intendant
and Bishop.
• The people had no influence over
government officials.
• Women were excluded from the
governing process.
• This system of government was
inexpensive and efficient.
Advisors in the French Government
New France
Governor General
Governor General
Governor General
 He Represented the King in New
He served as a figurehead, a living
symbol of the King’s authority.
Was appointed by nobility.
He was the highest ranking official
in N/F
Previously worked in the Military
Responsible for:
 Military Planning
 Native Relations
 Watching over other officials
Comte de Frontenac
The Bishop
 He represented the Roman
Catholic Church in N/F
 He ruled over the local
priests and nuns
 Was responsible for the
missionaries, churches,
hospitals and schools
 Was often part of the French
Nobility and was appointed
by the King
Francois de Laval
The Intendant
 Acted as Master of New France
in the King’s Name
 Informed the King of colonial
activities and ensured
harmony among the people
 Was appointed from the
 Supervised the day-to-day
running of the colony (law and
order) and matters relating to
finance (money).
Jean Talon (1625-1694)
Improvements Made in New France
 Jean Talon (The Intendant)
tried to make N/F more
independent by creating
industries such as agriculture,
lumber, mining, shipbuilding,
brewing, and shoemaking.
 He tried t o increase the
population (filles du roi)
 Comte de Frontenac
(Governor General) met with
Iroquois chiefs to encourage
friendships and develop peace.
This allowed the French to
continue the Fur Trade
Day 3
The Seigneurial System
Topics Discussed in this Lesson:
1. Seigneural System
2. Women in the Seigneuries
3. Life in New France
Think/Pair/Share Chinese Ancient
• How was land divided?
• How were important
decisions made?
• What did the farmers give
the landlords?
• What did the landlords
provide the farmers?
Seigneuries What is the Seigneurial
Is the semi-feudal system of
land distribution used in the
North American colonies of
New France. It was the way
the people divided land for
people to farm.
This system of farming was
used both in France and
New France.
Seigneuries Why was the land divided in
long strips?
• The St. Lawrence was an
important transportation
route and every farmer
needed access. In the winter,
the river froze and was used as
a road; the summer, boats
would go up and down.
• The land was passed down
from parents and divided.
When the land was
completely used the colony
would start a new set of rows
behind the river.
The King owned all of the
land in France and N/F.
He allowed people
named Seigneurs to
use the land. The
Seigneurs were
responsible for dividing
the land and getting
settlers called
Habitants to farm it.
Duties of the Seigneur
• Subdivided the seigneury
into 32-hectar parcels and
grant land to the habitants
• Build a house and flour mill
on the Seigneury
• Help build a church (provide
money $$)
• Report to the Intendant
information about the
population of the seigneury,
the amount of land under
cultivation, and dues paid
Duties of the Habitant
 Paid taxes
 Build a house
 Farm the land
 Performed unpaid labour
for the Seigneur a few days
a year (corvee)
 Give some of their produce
(fish, crops, animals) to the
seigneur annually.
Women and the Seigneuries
 French Women were
allowed to hold (own) land
(unlike other European
 Women were encouraged to
marry by 16
 Women usually inherited the
land when their husband
died; others handed it over
to their sons when they
become of age.
New France Vs France
How was life different between New France and
• Even though the government structure and
institutions were modeled after France, there
was a large difference in lifestyle between
France and New France.
• In France, the seigneurial system worked to the
seigneur’s advantage and made them great
profit. In N/F the seigneur did not make large
profit, they only gained status.
New France
1. Seigneur’s made less
money and were not
much richer than the
2. Seigneur’s had social
3. The Habitants had more
independence, land and
4. Habitants rarely had to
pay taxes and often kept
all of their produce.
5. Habitants did not have to
perform corvee.
Seigneur’s made more money
and were much richer than the
2. Seigneur’s had high social
The Habitants had less
independence, land and wealth.
4. Habitants paid high taxes and
often handed over a large
portion of their produce.
5. Habitants had to perform
1. Absolute Monarchy is:
Is a political position granted through votes
Is a leader who holds power but grants people the right to vote.
Is a leader who has unlimited power of their people. Power is not
2. King Louis XIV took control of New France because:
He was born in Quebec and had a deep love for the country
He wanted too make it his vacation property
The colony was failing and wanted to increase France’s power and
3. What is not a characteristic of an Absolute Monarch
Only the people selected by the King are allowed to participate in
the government.
The people have the right to vote for their leader.
Only the King has the power to make decisions.
Majority rule does not exist in an absolute monarchy.
Minority rule and one person rule exist in an absolute monarchy.
The 3 important officials in New France
a) The Governor General, Jesuits and Priest
b) The Governor General, the Bishop and Intendant
c) The Governor General, governor and King
d) The King, Council and Governor General
The Bishop is a:
a) Is in charge of missionaries, churches, hospitals and
b) Is appointed by the priests
c) Is appointed by the nobility
d) Is in charge of the day to day running of the colony.
Farmer’s property was long and narrow
It was easier to walk to your neighbor’s house if they
were in long lines.
b) The land was on a slope making it easier for water to
run down hill.
c) Each farmer wanted access to the St. Lawrence
What is not a duty of the seigneur
Subdivide the seigneury into 32-hectare parcels and
grant land to the habitants.
b) Give a percentage of his produce (fish, crops,
animals to the seigneur annually)
c) Build a house and flour mill on the seigneury.
d) Report to the Intendant about information
population etc.
The Coureurs de bois are:
a) French people who were farmers
b) They were people that lived in Acadia
c) Were French hunters working in the fur trade
d) Worked for the Catholic Church
The Huron could be best described as EXCEPT:
a) They are a native group in the St. Lawrence Region
b) The were middlemen for the French
c) They had a trading and military alliance with the Iroquois
d) They had an alliance with the French
10. The native people called the Jesuit Priests the:
a) Black robes
b) The Crazy men
c) God’s soldiers
d) Nuns
Role of the Church
Towns Established in N/F
Role in the Seigneuries
Health Care
Vatican City
(Catholic Church)
Importance things to
 Most of all the people in N/F were
Roman Catholic
The Role of the Catholic church
changed when N/F became a royal
Missionary  Caring for French
More priests were needed to deal
with the increase number of settlers.
The church was responsible for
education, hospitals and charity.
The bishop was an important
influence in making decisions in N/F
Three Main Towns By the mid-1600s, N/F had
established 3 main cities.
• Quebec
• Trois Rivieres
• Montreal
Quebec was the oldest of the
three towns and military
Montreal was established as a
missionary and became the
centre for the fur trade
Trois Rivieres was known for
birchbark canoes
Churches on Seigneuries
It was the Seigneur’s
responsibility to provide the
habitants with a church.
The church was the centre
of the Habitants social life.
They provided many
services such as:
Spiritual Service
Legal Service
Government Service
Personal Service
Role in Education
The Church was responsible for
education in the Royal Colony.
They taught children the
Roman Catholic religion, how
to read, write Latin and
English, and do math.
Many children didn’t receive
education because they were
needed to work on the farm.
Boys interested in priesthood
were taught how to read and
write. Girls often received a
better education than boys.
Role in Health Care
The Catholic Church was also
responsible for caring for the
sick, the elderly, orphans,
and people with disabilities.
This type of work was usually
done by the nuns.
They had to work in very
difficult conditions.
Chapter 3 Quiz next class!!