CHAPTER 3 – NEW FRANCE: A ROYAL GOVERNMENT (1663-1760) Chapter 3 - Outline 1. Day One: Establishment of Royal Colony & Royal Government 2. Day Two: Colonial Government in New France, Royal Government Structure & Important Officials 3. Day Three: Seigneurial System, Women & Life in New France 4. Day Four: Church in New France Royal Colony: 1663 Why did France make New France a ROYAL COLONY? • The Company of Habitants were in debt (owed money) and couldn’t pay for the colonies expenses • The Iroquois attacked the colony and blocked fur trade King Louis XIV • He was the King of France • He was in power from 1643 to his death in 1675, making him the longest monarch to hold power in Europe. • When he was in power France was one of the most powerful countries in Europe • He made New France a Royal Colony Absolute Monarchy What is a Absolute Monarchy??? • They have unlimited power over • • • • their people and were not restricted by a set of rules (constitution) or a group of people (aristocracy). They believe their power and right to rule comes from GOD. They were suppose to govern their subjects. People had no control or influence over government decisions. The King appointed groups/councils that made decisions for the King Absolute Monarchy Three Characteristics of an Absolute Monarch 1. The people in the Government are selected by the Monarch 2. One person (the King) has the power to make the decisions 3. Majority Rules does not exist Minority Rule does exist 1. Absolute Selection The King selects the people who are allowed to participate in government. They are the King’s advisors. They had influence on the king but he did not have to listen to them. 2. Absolute Power The King believes his power to rule over the people is inherited from his ancestors They have the final decision on matters, but ruling a country is a lot of work. The King lets others make decisions for him. If he didn’t like their decisions they would be fired and replaced In New France, the governing officials had a lot of political power. WHY? (see page 45) 3. Minority Rule Definition: Minority rule is when a small majority of the country controls a country. An absolute monarchy is an example of Minority Rule because the King controlled everything. A democratic government is an example of Majority Rule. Day 2 – Colonial Government and Important Government Officials Topics Today: 1. Jean Baptiste Colbert 2. Women of New France 3. The Colonial Government 4. Government Structure 5. Government Officials Jean – Baptiste Colbert Who is he? He was appointed by King Louis XIV and one of his advisors. What was his responsibility: He was in charge of France’s economy and made decisions concerning France’s colonies. He was interested mercantilism and attaining raw materials. Improving the Royal Colony Increase Population: • Government grants were given to families that had more than 10 children. • Monetary ($$) rewards were given to couples who marry early (under 20 for men – under 16 for women) • The French Government paid the expenses for 4000 people to immigrate to New France. 1000 were single women called the filles du roi (The King’s Daughters). • Militia companies were formed to help protect the colony. • The French Army attacked the Iroquois villages – which lead to negotiations and peace for 20 years. Colonial Government The Colonial Government had more power than government officials in France: • It sometimes took 6-7 months for communication to reach N/F. This gave local officials more power. • The Senior members of the government were the Governor General, Intendant and Bishop. • The people had no influence over government officials. • Women were excluded from the governing process. • This system of government was inexpensive and efficient. Royal Government KING Advisors in the French Government New France Asian Colony African Colony Intendant Intendant Intendant Governor General Governor General Governor General Bishop Bishop Bishop Governor General He Represented the King in New France He served as a figurehead, a living symbol of the King’s authority. Was appointed by nobility. He was the highest ranking official in N/F Previously worked in the Military Responsible for: Military Planning Native Relations Watching over other officials Comte de Frontenac (1622-1698) The Bishop He represented the Roman Catholic Church in N/F He ruled over the local priests and nuns Was responsible for the missionaries, churches, hospitals and schools Was often part of the French Nobility and was appointed by the King Francois de Laval (1623-1708) The Intendant Acted as Master of New France in the King’s Name Informed the King of colonial activities and ensured harmony among the people Was appointed from the nobility Supervised the day-to-day running of the colony (law and order) and matters relating to finance (money). Jean Talon (1625-1694) Improvements Made in New France Jean Talon (The Intendant) tried to make N/F more independent by creating industries such as agriculture, lumber, mining, shipbuilding, brewing, and shoemaking. He tried t o increase the population (filles du roi) Comte de Frontenac (Governor General) met with Iroquois chiefs to encourage friendships and develop peace. This allowed the French to continue the Fur Trade Day 3 The Seigneurial System Topics Discussed in this Lesson: 1. Seigneural System 2. Women in the Seigneuries 3. Life in New France Think/Pair/Share Chinese Ancient Farming • How was land divided? • How were important decisions made? • What did the farmers give the landlords? • What did the landlords provide the farmers? Seigneuries What is the Seigneurial System? Is the semi-feudal system of land distribution used in the North American colonies of New France. It was the way the people divided land for people to farm. This system of farming was used both in France and New France. Seigneuries Why was the land divided in long strips? • The St. Lawrence was an important transportation route and every farmer needed access. In the winter, the river froze and was used as a road; the summer, boats would go up and down. • The land was passed down from parents and divided. When the land was completely used the colony would start a new set of rows behind the river. Seigneur The King owned all of the land in France and N/F. He allowed people named Seigneurs to use the land. The Seigneurs were responsible for dividing the land and getting settlers called Habitants to farm it. Duties of the Seigneur • Subdivided the seigneury into 32-hectar parcels and grant land to the habitants • Build a house and flour mill on the Seigneury • Help build a church (provide money $$) • Report to the Intendant information about the population of the seigneury, the amount of land under cultivation, and dues paid (taxes). Duties of the Habitant Paid taxes Build a house Farm the land Performed unpaid labour for the Seigneur a few days a year (corvee) Give some of their produce (fish, crops, animals) to the seigneur annually. Women and the Seigneuries French Women were allowed to hold (own) land (unlike other European countries). Women were encouraged to marry by 16 Women usually inherited the land when their husband died; others handed it over to their sons when they become of age. New France Vs France How was life different between New France and France? • Even though the government structure and institutions were modeled after France, there was a large difference in lifestyle between France and New France. • In France, the seigneurial system worked to the seigneur’s advantage and made them great profit. In N/F the seigneur did not make large profit, they only gained status. New France France 1. Seigneur’s made less 1. money and were not much richer than the Habitants 2. Seigneur’s had social status. 3. The Habitants had more independence, land and wealth. 4. Habitants rarely had to pay taxes and often kept all of their produce. 5. Habitants did not have to perform corvee. Seigneur’s made more money and were much richer than the Habitants. 2. Seigneur’s had high social status. 3. The Habitants had less independence, land and wealth. 4. Habitants paid high taxes and often handed over a large portion of their produce. 5. Habitants had to perform corvee. 1. Absolute Monarchy is: a) b) c) Is a political position granted through votes Is a leader who holds power but grants people the right to vote. Is a leader who has unlimited power of their people. Power is not restricted. 2. King Louis XIV took control of New France because: a) b) c) He was born in Quebec and had a deep love for the country He wanted too make it his vacation property The colony was failing and wanted to increase France’s power and wealth. 3. What is not a characteristic of an Absolute Monarch a) b) c) d) e) Only the people selected by the King are allowed to participate in the government. The people have the right to vote for their leader. Only the King has the power to make decisions. Majority rule does not exist in an absolute monarchy. Minority rule and one person rule exist in an absolute monarchy. 4. The 3 important officials in New France were: a) The Governor General, Jesuits and Priest b) The Governor General, the Bishop and Intendant c) The Governor General, governor and King d) The King, Council and Governor General 5. The Bishop is a: a) Is in charge of missionaries, churches, hospitals and schools. b) Is appointed by the priests c) Is appointed by the nobility d) Is in charge of the day to day running of the colony. 6. Farmer’s property was long and narrow because: It was easier to walk to your neighbor’s house if they were in long lines. b) The land was on a slope making it easier for water to run down hill. c) Each farmer wanted access to the St. Lawrence River. a) 7. What is not a duty of the seigneur Subdivide the seigneury into 32-hectare parcels and grant land to the habitants. b) Give a percentage of his produce (fish, crops, animals to the seigneur annually) c) Build a house and flour mill on the seigneury. d) Report to the Intendant about information population etc. a) 8. The Coureurs de bois are: a) French people who were farmers b) They were people that lived in Acadia c) Were French hunters working in the fur trade d) Worked for the Catholic Church 9. The Huron could be best described as EXCEPT: a) They are a native group in the St. Lawrence Region b) The were middlemen for the French c) They had a trading and military alliance with the Iroquois people d) They had an alliance with the French 10. The native people called the Jesuit Priests the: a) Black robes b) The Crazy men c) God’s soldiers d) Nuns DAY 4 – THE CHURCH IN NEW FRANCE 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Role of the Church Towns Established in N/F Role in the Seigneuries Education Health Care Vatican City (Catholic Church) Importance things to remember! Most of all the people in N/F were Roman Catholic The Role of the Catholic church changed when N/F became a royal colony. Missionary Caring for French Settlers More priests were needed to deal with the increase number of settlers. The church was responsible for education, hospitals and charity. The bishop was an important influence in making decisions in N/F Three Main Towns By the mid-1600s, N/F had established 3 main cities. • Quebec • Trois Rivieres • Montreal Quebec was the oldest of the three towns and military centre Montreal was established as a missionary and became the centre for the fur trade Trois Rivieres was known for birchbark canoes Churches on Seigneuries It was the Seigneur’s responsibility to provide the habitants with a church. The church was the centre of the Habitants social life. They provided many services such as: • • • • Spiritual Service Legal Service Government Service Personal Service Role in Education The Church was responsible for education in the Royal Colony. They taught children the Roman Catholic religion, how to read, write Latin and English, and do math. Many children didn’t receive education because they were needed to work on the farm. Boys interested in priesthood were taught how to read and write. Girls often received a better education than boys. Role in Health Care The Catholic Church was also responsible for caring for the sick, the elderly, orphans, and people with disabilities. This type of work was usually done by the nuns. They had to work in very difficult conditions. Chapter 3 Quiz next class!!